Reproductive phenology in terrestrial ecosystems
ReproductiveChanges in the timing of reproduction in plants and animals have been reported from the Arctic. There is some evidence indicating that the timing of reproduction – including the flowering of plants, emergence of insects, and egg-laying in birds – is occurring earlier in response to warming conditions and earlier snowmelt. Longer growing seasons may be an advantage to some species in terms of reproduction and growth. There is, however, a serious risk of disruptions in food webs when there is a “trophic mismatch”, where the breeding of some species (e.g., caribou or birds) no longer matches up with the timing of the most abundant and nutritious food (e.g., new plant growth or insects).