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In 2008, the United Nations Environment Program passed a resolution expressing ‘extreme concern’ over the impacts of climate change on Arctic indigenous peoples, other communities, and biodiversity.1 It highlighted the potentially significant consequences of changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Biodiversity Trends – 2010: Selected Indicators of Change report provides evidence that some of those anticipated impacts on Arctic biodiversity are already occurring. Furthermore, although climate change is a pervasive stressor, multiple stressors, such as long range transport of contaminants, harvesting of wild species, and resource development are also impacting Arctic biodiversity. The following key messages include a selection of indicators from the Arctic Biodiversity Trends report.