References
Introduction
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  • 1. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 2. Zöckler, C., Delany, S. & Hagemeijer, W. 2003. Wader populations are declining – how will we elucidate the reasons? Wader Study Group Bull. 100: 202–211.
  • 3. Zöckler, C. 2008. The Role of the Goose Specialist Group in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP). Vogelwelt 129: 127-130.
  • 4. Wetlands International. 2009. Flyways: corridors of bird migration. http://wow.wetlands.org/INFORMATIONFLY WAY/FLYWAYCONSERVATION/tabid/173/language/en- US/Default.aspx [Accessed 19 March 2010].
  • 5. Arctic Tern Migration Project. 2009. Maps for press use. http://www.arctictern.info/carsten/maps.html [Accessed 19 March 2010].
  • 6. American Cetacean Society. Fact Sheets. http://www. acsonline.org/factpack/index.html [Accessed 19 March 2010].
  • 7. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 2002. Arctic Flora and Fauna: Status and Conservation. Edita. Helsinki. 266 pp. http://www.caff.is/document-library/arctic-flora-afauna [Accessed 15 January 2010].
  • 8. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)
  • 9. Post, E., Mads, C., Forchhammer, M.C., Bret-Harte, M.S., Callaghan, T.V., Christensen, T.R., Elberling, B., Fox,A.D., Gilg, O., Hik, D.S., Høye, T.T., Ims, R.A., Jeppesen, E., Klein, D.R., Madsen, J., McGuire, A.D., Rysgaard, S., Schindler, D.E., Stirling, I., Tamstorf, M.P., Tyler, N.J.C., van der Wal, R., Welker, J., Wookey, P.A., Schmidt, N.M., and Aastrup, P. 2009. Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change. Science. 325 (5946):1355–1358.
  • 10. Abele, F. 1997. Traditional knowledge in practice. Arctic 50(4): iii – iv.
  • 11. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 2007. The Arctic Biodiversity Assessment, Work Plan and Financial Strategy. http://caff.arcticportal.org [Accessed 8 February 2010].
  • 12. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 2009. Arctic 2010 Biodiversity Highlights Report: Basic Principles for the Scientific Report, Timelines and Technical guidelines to authors. Version March 2010. pp. 5-6.
  • 13. United Nations. 2002. Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development:A/CONF.199/20. http://www.un-documents.net/jburgpln.htm [Accessed 7 February 2010].
  • 14. United Nations General Assembly. 2005. Sixtieth Session Agenda items 46 and 120 05-48760. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/UN/UNPAN021752.pdf [Accessed 8 February 2010].
  • 15. The Tromso Declaration (2009), On the occasion of the Sixth Ministerial Meeting of The Arctic Council, 29 of April, 2009, Tromsø, Norway http://arctic-council.org/ filearchive/Tromsoe%20Declaration-1..pdf [Accessed 8 February 2010].
 
Key findings
  • 1. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2008. Governing Council Decision SS.X/2. Tenth special session of the Governing Council/Global Minsterial Environment Forum, Monaco, 20-22 February 2008.
 
Emerging issues and challenges
  • 1. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 2001. Arctic Flora and Fauna: Status and Conservation. Edita, Helsinki. 266 pp. http://www.caff.is/document-library/arctic-flora-afauna [Accessed 15 January 2010].
  • 2. Nordic Council of Ministers. 2009. Signs of climate change in Nordic nature. TemaNord. 2009: 551. 46 pp. http://www. norden.org/en/publications/publications/2009-551?set_ language=en&-C= [Accessed 15 January 2010].
  • 3. Jonzen, N., Linden, A., Ergon, T., Knudsen, E., Vik, J.O., Rubolini, D., Piacentini, D., Brinch, C., Spina, F., Karlsson, L., Stervander, M., Andersson, A., Waldenstrom, J., Lehikoinen, A., Edvardsen, E., Solvang, R., & Stenseth, N.C. 2006. Rapid advance of spring arrival dates in long-distance migratory birds. Science. 312:1959-1961.
  • 4. Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., de Siqueira, M.F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, O.L. & Williams, S.E. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature. 427: 145-148.
  • 5. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 6. Post, E., Mads, C., Forchhammer, M.C., Bret-Harte, M.S., Callaghan, T.V., Christensen, T.R., Elberling, B., Fox, A.D., Gilg, O., Hik, D.S., H.ye, T.T., Ims, R.A., Jeppesen, E., Klein, D.R., Madsen, J., McGuire, A.D., Rysgaard, S., Schindler, D.E., Stirling, I., Tamstorf, M.P., Tyler, N.J.C., van der Wal, R., Welker, J., Wookey, P.A., Schmidt, N.M., and Aastrup, P. 2009. Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change. Science. 325 (5946):1355–1358.
 
INDICATOR #01 Polar bears
  • 1. Stirling, I. & Derocher, A.E. 1993. Possible impacts of climatic warming on polar bears. Arctic. 46:240-245.
  • 2. Derocher, A.E., Lunn, N.J. & Stirling, I. 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integr. Comp. Biol. 44:163-176.
  • 3. Laidre, K.L., Stirling, I., Lowry, L.F., Wiig, .., Heide- J.rgensen, M.P. & Ferguson, S.H. 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl):S97-S125.
  • 4. Rothrock, D.A., Yu, Y. & Maykut, G.A. 1999. Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26:3469-3472.
  • 5. Comiso, J.C. 2002. A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29:1956, doi:10.1029/2002/ GLO15650.
  • 6. Comiso, J.C. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Satellite-observed changes in the Arctic. Phys. Today. 57(8):38-44.
  • 7. Gough, W.A., Cornwell, A.R. & Tsuji, L.J.S. 2004. Trends in seasonal sea ice duration in southwestern Hudson Bay. Arctic. 57:299-305.
  • 8. Gagnon, A.S. & Gough, W.A. 2005. Trends in the dates of ice freeze-up and breakup over Hudson Bay, Canada. Arctic. 58:370-382.
  • 9. Stirling, I. & Parkinson, C.L. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic. 59:261-275.
  • 10. Serreze, M.C., Holland, M.M. & Stroeve, J. 2007. Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover. Science. 315:1533- 1536.
  • 11. Parkinson, C.L. & Cavalieri, D.J. 2008. Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07003, doi:10.1029/2007JC004558.
  • 12. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Summary for policymakers. In: S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp.1-18. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • 13. Stirling, I., Lunn, N.J. & Iacozza, J. 1999. Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change. Arctic. 52:294-306.
  • 14. IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. 2009. http://pbsg. npolar.no/en/meetings/press-releases/15-Copenhagen. html [Accessed 1 February 2010].
  • 15. Regehr, E.V., Lunn, N.J., Amstrup, S.C. & Stirling, I. 2007. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. J. Wildl. Manage. 71:2673-2683.
  • 16. Durner, G.M., Douglas, D.C., Nielson, R.M., Amstrup, S.C., McDonald, T.L., Stirling, I., Mauritzen, M., Born, E.W., Wiig, .., DeWeaver, D., Serreze, M.C., Belikov, S.E., Holland, M.M., Maslanik, J., Aars, J., Bailey, D.A. & Derocher, A.E. 2009. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models. Ecol. Monogr. 79:25-58.
  • 17. Regehr, E.V., Amstrup, S.C. & Stirling, I. 2006. Polar bear population status in the southern Beaufort Sea. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1337.
  • 18. Regehr, E.V., Hunter, C.M., Caswell, H., Amstrup, S.C. & Stirling, I. 2007. Polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea I: Survival and breeding in relation to sea ice conditions, 2001- 2006. U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report.
  • 19. Rode, K.D., Amstrup, S.C. & Regehr, E.V. 2007. Polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea III: Stature, mass, and cub recruitment in relationship to time and sea ice extent between 1982 and 2006. U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report.
  • 20. Amstrup, S.C., Stirling, I. & Lentfer, J.W. 1986. Past and present status of polar bears in Alaska. Wildl. Soc. B. 14:241-254.
  • 21. Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lo, K., Lea, D.W. & Medina- Elizade, M. 2006. Global temperature change. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:14288-14293.
  • 22. Walsh, J.E. 2008. Climate of the Arctic marine environment. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl):S3-S22.
  • 23. Maslanik, J.A., Fowler, C., Stroeve, J., Drobot, S., Zwally, J., Yi, D. & Emery, W. 2007. A younger, thinner Arctic ice cover: increased potential for rapid, extensive sea ice loss. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24501, doi: 10.1029/2007GL032043.
  • 24. Meier, W.N., Stroeve, J. & Fetterer, F. 2007. Whither Arctic sea ice? A clear signal of decline regionally, seasonally and extending beyond the satellite record. Ann. Glaciol. 46:428–434.
  • 25. Hunter, C.M., Caswell, H., Runge, M.C., Regehr, E.V., Amstrup, S.C. & Stirling, I. 2007. Polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea II: Demography and population growth in relation to sea ice conditions. U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report.
  • 26. Amstrup, S.C., Marcot, B.G. & Douglas, D.C. 2008. A Bayesian network modeling approach to forecasting the 21st century worldwide status of polar bears. In: E.T. DeWeaver, C.M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay (eds.) Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, pp. 213-268. American Geophysical Union. Geophys. Monog. Series. 180.
  • 27. AMAP (Arctic Assessment and Monitoring Programme). 1998. AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Oslo, Norway.
  • 28. Macdonald, R.W., Harner, T., Fyfe, J., Loeng, H. & Weingartner, T. 2003. AMAP assessment 2002: The influence of global change on contaminant pathways to, within, and from the Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Oslo, Norway.
  • 29. Norstrom, R.J., Belikov, S.E., Born, E.W., Garner, G.W., Malone, B., Olpinski, S., Ramsay, M.A., Schliebe, S., Stirling, I., Stishov, M.S., Taylor, M.K. & Wiig, .. 1998. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in polar bears from eastern Russia, North America, Greenland and Svalbard. Arch. Environ. Con. Tox. 35:354–367.
  • 30. Skaare, J. U., Bernhoft, A., Wiig, .., Norum, K.R., Haug, E., Eide, D.M. & Derocher, A.E. 2001. Relationships between plasma levels of organochlorines, retinol and thyroid hormones from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. J. Environ. Health Tox. 62:227–241.
  • 31. Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, .., Derocher, A.E. & Larsen, H.J.S. 2000. Possible immunotoxic effects of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. J. Toxicol. Env. Health. A. 59:561–574.
  • 32. Derocher, A. E., Wolkers, H., Colborn, T., Schlabach, M., Larsen, T.S. & Wiig, .. 2003. Contaminants in Svalbard polar bear samples archived since 1967 and possible population level effects. Sci. Total Environ. 301:163–174.
  • 33. Verreault, J., Gabrielsen, G.W., Chu, S.G., Muir, D.C.G., Andersen, M., Hamaed, A. & Letcher, R.J. 2005a. Flame retardants and methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two Norwegian Arctic top predators: Glaucous gulls and polar bears. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39:6021-6028.
  • 34. Verreault, J., Muir, D.C.G., Norstrom, R.J., Stirling, I., Fisk, A.T., Gabrielsen, G.W., Derocher, A.E., Evans, T.J., Dietz, R., Sonne, C., Sandala, G.M., Gebbink, W., Riget, F.F., Born, E.W., Taylor, M.K., Nagy, J. & Letcher, R.J. 2005b. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard: 1996-2002. Sci. Total Environ. 351:369-390.
  • 35. Muir, D.C.G., Backus, S., Derocher, A.E., Dietz, R., Evans, T.J., Gabrielsen, G.W., Nagy, J., Norstrom, R.J., Sonne, C., Stirling, I., Taylor, M.K. & Letcher, R.J. 2006. Brominated flame retardants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, East Greenland, and Svalbard. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:449-455.
  • 36. Smithwick, M., Norstrom, R.J., Mabury, S.A., Solomon, K., Evans, T.J., Stirling, I., Taylor, M.K. & Muir, D.C.G. 2006. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from two locations in the North American Arctic, 1972-2002. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:1139-1143.
  • 37. Verreault, J., Norstrom, R.J., Ramsay, M.A., Mulvihill, M. & Letcher, R.J. 2006. Composition of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants among major adipose tissue depots of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian high Arctic. Sci. Total Environ. 370:580-587.
  • 38. McKinney, M.A., Peacock, E. & Letcher, R.J. 2009. Sea iceassociated diet change increases the levels of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in polar bears. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43:4334-4339.
  • 39. Hovelsrud, G.K., McKenna, M. & Huntington, H.P. 2008. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl):S135-S147.
  • 40. Ragen, T.J., Huntington, H.P. & Hovelsrud, G.K. 2008. Conservation of arctic marine mammals faced with climate change. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl):S166-S174.
 
INDICATOR #02 Wild reindeer and caribou
  • 1. Gough, L. & Hobbie, S.E. 2003. Responses of moist nonacidic arctic tundra to altered environment: productivity, biomass and species richness. Oikos. 103:204–216.
  • 2. Griffith, B., Gunn, A. & Russell, D. 2001. “Bathurst Caribou Calving Ground Studies: Influence of Nutrition and Human Activity on Calving Ground Location; and Influence of Parasites on Calving Ground Location”. Prepared for West Kitikmeot Slave Study Society Final Report by University of Alaska, GNWT, and Canadian Wildlife Service.
  • 3. Olofsson J., Stark, S. & Oksanen, L. 2004. Reindeer influence on ecosystem processes in the tundra. Oikos. 105:386–396.
  • 4. Kielland, K., Bryant, J.P., & Ruess, R.W. 2006. Mammalian herbivory, ecosystem engineering, and ecological cascades in taiga forests. Pages 211-226, In: F.S. Chapin, III, M.W. Oswood, K. Van Cleve, L. Viereck, and D. Verbyla (eds.), Alaska’s changing boreal forest, Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
  • 5. CARMA (The CircumArctic Rangifter Monitoring & Assessment Network). 2009. http://www.carmanetwork. com/display/public/home [Accessed 5 January 2010].
  • 6. Intergroup Consultants Ltd. 2008. Economic valuation and socio-cultural perspectives of the estimated harvest of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou herds. Report prepared for the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. 28 pp.
  • 7. Ulvevadet, B. & Klokov, K. 2004. Family-based reindeer herding and hunting economies, and the status and management of wild reindeer/caribou populations. Centre for Saami Studies. University of Troms.
  • 8. Western Arctic – J. Dau - Alaska Dept. Fish and Game; Teshekpuk Lake – L. Parrett - Alaska Dept. Fish and Game; Central Arctic – B. Lenart - Alaska Dept. Fish and Game; Alaska Southern Herds – K. Joly - Alaska Dept Fish and Game; Porcupine – D. Cooley - Yukon Dept. of Environment; Cape Bathurst – M. Brannigan / J. Nagyn - NWT Dept. Environment and Natural Resources; Bluenose West – M. Brannigan / J. Nagy - NWT Dept. Environment and Natural Resources; Bluenose East – M. Brannigan / J. Nagy - NWT Dept. Environment and Natural Resources; Bathurst – B. Croft - NWT Dept. Environment and Natural Resources; Dolphin Union – M. Dumond - Nunavut Department of Environment; Ahiak – A. Gunn - CARMA Steering Committee; Beverly – L. Wakelyn - Beverly Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board; Qamanirjuaq – L. Wakelyn - Beverly Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board; Southampton Island – M. Campbell - Nunavut Department of Environment; George River – S. Cote - U of Laval; Leaf River – S. Cote - U of Laval; Peary Caribou – A. Gunn - CARMA Steering Committee; Greenland – C. Cuyler - Greenland Institute of Natural Resources; Iceland – R. Thoraninsdottir / S. Thorisson - East Iceland Natural History Institute; Norway Mountain Herds – O. Strand; Taimyr – L. Kolpashikov - Russian Academy of Science Norilsk; Lena-Olenyk – V. Safronov - Russian Academy of Science Yakutsk; Yana Indigurka – V. Safronov - Russian Academy of Science Yakutsk; Sundrunskaya – V. Safronov - Russian Academy of Science Yakutsk; Chutotka – V. Etylin - Russian Academy of Science Anadyr. Sources of Trend Information for Individual Herds, pers. comm. 2009.
  • 9. Gunn A., Russell, D., White, R. & Kofinas, G. 2009. Facing a Future of Change: Migratory caribou and reindeer. Arctic. 62(3):3-4.
  • 10. Couturier, S., Jean, D., Otto, R. & Rivard, S. 2004. Demography of the migratory tundra caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the Nord-du-QueÅLbec region and Labrador. Min. Ressources naturelles, Faune et Parcs, QueÅLbec, QueÅLbec.
  • 11. COSEWIC. 2004. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Peary caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi and the barren-ground caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus (Dolphin and Union population) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa
  • 12. Miller F. & Gunn, A. 2003. Catastrophic die-off of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands Canadian High Arctic, Arctic 56:381–390.
  • 13. Vistnes, I., Nellemann, C., Jordh.y, P., Strand, O. 2001. Wild reindeer: impacts of progressive infrastructure development on distribution and range use. Polar Biol. 24:531–537.
 
INDICATOR #03 Shorebirds – red knot
  • 1. Delany, S. & Scott, D. (eds.) 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands. http://global.wetlands.org/WatchRead/tabid/56/mod/1570/ articleType/ArticleView/articleId/2028/Default.aspx [Accessed 20 March 2010].
  • 2. Visser, D., University of Groningen, Netherlands, pers. comm. 2009.
  • 3. van Gils, J.A., Piersma, T., Dekinga, A., Spaans, B. & Kraan, C. 2006. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area. PLoS Biol. 4(12):e376. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040376.
  • 4. Minton, C.D.T., Australasian Wader Studies Group, pers. comm. 2009.
  • 5. Brown, S., Hickey, C. Harrington, B. & Gill, R. (eds.) 2001. U.S. shorebird conservation plan, 2nd ed. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Manomet, MA.
  • 6. Niles, L.J., Sitters, H.P., Dey, A.D., Atkinson, P.W., Baker, A.J., Bennett, K.A., Clark, K.E., Clark, N.A., Espoz, C., Gonzalez, P.M., Harrington, B.A., Hernandez, D.E., Kalasz, K.S., Matus, R.N., Minton, C.D.T, Morrison, R.I.G., Peck, M.K. & Serrano, I.L. 2008. Status of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) in the Western hemisphere. Stud. Avian Biol- Ser. 36. Cooper Ornithological Society.
  • 7. Baker, A.J., Gonzalez, P.M., Piersma, T., Niles, L.J., do Nascimento, I.L.S., Atkinson, P.W., Clark, N.A., Minton, C.D.T., Peck, M.K. & Aarts, G. 2004. Rapid population decline in Red Knot: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay. Proc. Royal Soc. London. 271:875-882.
 
INDICATOR #04 Shorebirds – murres (guillemots)
  • 1. Gaston, A.J. & Jones, I.L. 1998. The Auks – Alcidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • 2. Falk, K., Benvenuti, S, Dall’antonia, L, Kampp, K, & Ribolini, A. 2000. Time allocation and foraging behaviour of chickrearing Brunnich’s Guillemots Uria lomvia in high-arctic Greenland. Ibis 142:82-92.
  • 3. Elliott, K., Woo, K., Gaston, A.J., Benvenuti, S., Dall’Antonia, & Davoren, G. 2008. Foraging behaviour of an arctic seabird indicates prey type. Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser. 354:289-303.
  • 4. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Circumpolar Seabird Group (CBird) of CAFF members, pers. comm. 2009. See http://web.arcticportal.org/en/caff/cbird [Accessed 15 March 2010].
  • 5. Dierschke, J., Dierschke, V., Schmaljohann, F. & Stuehmer, F. 2009. Ornithologischer Jahresbericht fur Helgoland. 19:1-91.
  • 6. Syroechkovskiy, E., Yakushev, N., Artiukhov, A. & Konyukhov, N., ECORA Project, pers. comm. 2010.
  • 7. Irons, D.B., Anker-Nilssen, T., Gaston, A.J., Byrd, G.V., Falk, K., Gilchrist, G., Hario, M., Hjernquist, M., Krasnov, Y.V., Mosbech, A., Olsen, B., Petersen, A., Reid, J., Robertson, G., Strom, H. & Wohl, K.D. 2008. Magnitude of climate shift determines direction of circumpolar seabird population trends. Global Change Biol. 14:1455-1463.
  • 8. Falk, K. & Kampp K. 1997. A manual for monitoring Thickbilled Murre populations in Greenland. Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Technical Report No. 7.
  • 9. Gardarsson, A. 2006. Nýlegar breytingar aÅL fjoÅNlda iÅLslenskra bjargfugla [Recent changes in cliff-breeding seabirds in Iceland]. Bliki 27:13-22.
  • 10. Falk, K., Kampp, K., & Merkel, F. R. 2000. Monitering af lomviekolonierne i Sydgr.nland, 1999. Technical Report no. 32. Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Pinngortitaleriffik.
  • 11. Merkel F. R., Frich, A. S., Hangaard, P. 1999. Polarlomvien i Disko Bugt og sydlige Upernavik, 1998. Bestandsopg.relse og grundlag for fremtidig monitering af lomviebestandene. Technical Report no. 25, Greenland Institute of Natural Ressources, Pinngortitaleriffik.
  • 12. Merkel, F. R., Labansen, A. L. & Witting, L. 2007. Monitering af lomvier og rider i Qaanaaq Kommune, 2006. Technical Report no. 69, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Pinngortitaleriffik.
  • 13. Stirling, I. & Parkinson, C.L. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59:261-275.
  • 14. Gaston, A.J., Gilchrist, H.G. & Hipfner, J.M. 2005. Climate change, ice conditions and reproduction in an Arctic nesting marine bird: the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia, L.) J. Anim. Ecol. 74:832-841.
  • 15. AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme). 2008. Arctic Oil and Gas. AMAP. Olso, Norway. 40 pp.
  • 16. Braune, B.M., Donaldson, G.M. & Hobson, K.A. 2001. Contaminant residues in seabird eggs from the Canadian Arctic. Part I. Temporal trends 1975-1998. Environ. Pollut. 114:39-54.
  • 17. Wiese, F. & Robertson, G.J. 2004. Assessing seabird mortality from chronic oil discharges at sea. J. Wildl. Manage. 68:627-638.
 
INDICATOR #05 Seabirds – common eider
  • 1. Bustnes, J.O. & Tertitski, G.M. 2000. Common eider Somateria mollissima. Pages 46-50 In: T. Anker-Nilssen, V. Bakken, H. Str.m, A.N. Golovkin, V.V. Bianki and I.P. Tatarinkova (eds.) The status of marine birds breeding in the Barents Sea region. Norwegian Polar Institute, Troms.
  • 2. Goudie, R.I., Robertson, G.J. & Reed, A. 2000. Common Eider Somateria mollissima. In: A. Poole (ed.) Birds of North America Online. No 456. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/546 [Accessed 14 January 2010]
  • 3. Merkel, F.R. & Barry, T. 2008. Seabird harvest in the Arctic. CAFF Technical Report No. 16. 2008. Akureyri, Iceland, CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF. (CBird)
  • 4. BeÅLdard, J., Nadeau, A., Giroux, J.-F. & Savard, J.-P. 2008. Eiderdown: Characteristics and harvesting procedures. SocieÅLteÅL Duvetnor LteÅLe and Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, QueÅLbec Region, QueÅLbec.
  • 5. Gilchrist, H.G., Mallory, M. & Merkel, F.R. 2005. Can traditional ecological knowledge contribute to wildlife management? Case studies of migratory birds. Ecology and Society 10: 20. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/ iss1/art20/ [Accessed 14 January 2010].
  • 6. Mosbech, A., Gilchrist, H.G., Merkel, F.R., Sonne, C., Flagstad, A. & Nyegaard, H. 2006. Year-round movements of Northern Common Eiders Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in Arctic Canada and West Greenland followed by satellite telemetry. Ardea. 94:651-665.
  • 7. Petersen, M.R. 2009. Multiple spring migration strategies in a population of Pacific Common Eiders. Condor. 111:59-70.
  • 8. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) CBird group members, pers. comm. 2009. See http://web.arcticportal. org/en/caff/cbird [Accessed 15 March 2010].
  • 9. The Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF (CBird). 1997. Circumpolar Eider Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. CAFF International Secretariat. Akureyri, Iceland.
  • 10. Suydam, R.S., Dickson, D.L., Fadely, J.B. & Quakenbush, L.T. 2000. Population declines of King and Common Eiders of the Beaufort Sea. Condor. 102:219-222.
  • 11. Merkel, F.R. 2004. Evidence of population decline in Common Eiders breeding in western Greenland. Arctic. 57:27-36.
  • 12. Robertson, G.J. & Gilchrist, H.G. 1998. Evidence of population declines among Common Eiders breeding in the Belcher Islands, Northwest Territories. Arctic. 51:378-385.
  • 13. Chaulk, K.G., Robertson, G.J., Collins, B.T., Montevecchi, W.A. & Turner, B.C. 2005. Evidence of recent population increases in Common Eiders breeding in Labrador. J. Wildl. Manage. 69:805-809.
  • 14. Gilliland, S., Gilchrist, H.G., Rockwell, R. Robertson, G.J., Savard, J.-P., Merkel, F.R. & Mosbech, A. 2009. Evaluating the sustainability of harvest among Northern Common Eiders in Greenland and Canada. Wildl. Biol. 15:24-36.
  • 15. Strom, H., Gavrilo, M.V., Krasnov, J.V. & Systad, G.H. 2009. Seabirds // Joint Norwegian-Russian environmental status 2008. Report on the Barents Sea Ecosystem. Part II – Complete report. IMR/PINRO Joint Report Series. pp. 67-73.
  • 16. Desholm, M., Christensen, T.K., Scheiffarth, G., Hario, M., Andersson, AÅã., Ens, B.J., Camphuysen, C.J., Nilsson, L., Waltho, C.M., Lorentsen, S.H., Kuresoo, A., Kats, R.K.H., Fleet, D.M. & Fox, A.D. 2002. Status of the Baltic/ Wadden Sea population of the Common Eider Somateria m. mollissima. Wildfowl. 53:167-203.
  • 17. Hario, M. & Rintala, J. 2006. Fledgling production and population trends in Finnish Common Eiders Somateria mollissima mollissima – evidence for density dependence. Can. J. Zool. 84:1038-1046.
  • 18. Christensen, T.K. 2008. Factors affecting population size of Baltic Common Eiders Somateria mollissima. Dissertation, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University.
  • 19. Lehikoinen, A., Christensen, T.K., OÅNst, M., Kilpi, M., Saurola, P. & Vattulainen, A. 2008. Large-scale change in the sex ratio of a declining eider Somateria mollissima population. Wildl. Biol. 14:288-301.
  • 20. Butler, E.I. 2009. Avian cholera among Arctic breeding common eiders: temporal dynamics and the role of handling stress in reproduction and survival. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Carleton University, Canada.
  • 21. Bakken, V. & Falk, K. 1998. Incidental take of seabirds in commercial fisheries in the Arctic countries. CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, CAFF Technical Report no. 1. 50 pp.
  • 22. Žydelis, R., Bellebaum, J., OÅNsterblom, H., Vetemaa, M., Schirmeister, B., Stipniece, A., Dagys, M., van Eerden, M. & Garthe, S. 2009. Bycatch in gillnet fisheries - An overlooked threat to waterbird populations. Biol. Conserv. 142:1269- 1281.
  • 23. Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Fangel, K., Dervo, B.K. & Anker- Nilssen, T. 2008. Bifangst av sj.fugl i norske fiskerier - eksisterende kunnskab og forslag til kartleggingsprosjekt. Norsk Institutt for Naturforskning, Trondheim, NINA Rapport 382. 62 pp.
  • 24. Merkel, F.R. 2004. Impact of hunting and gillnet fishery on wintering eiders in Nuuk, Southwest Greenland. Waterbirds. 27:469-479.
  • 25. JoÅLnsson, J.E., Gardarson, A., Gill, J.A., Petersen A. & Gunnarsson, T.G. 2009. Seasonal weather effects on the common eider, a subarctic capital breeder, in Iceland over 55 years. Clim. Res.38: 248.
  • 26. Hario, M., Mazarolle, M.J. & Saurola, P. 2009. Survival of female common eiders Somateria m. mollissima in a declining population of the northern Baltic Sea. Oecol. 159:747-756.
 
INDICATOR #06 Arctic char
  • 1. Johnson, L. 1980. The arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. In: E.K. Balon (ed.) Chars: salmonid fishes of the genus Salvelinus, pp. 15-98. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands.
  • 2. Power, M., Reist, J.D. & Dempson, J.B. 2008. Fish in high latitude lakes. In: W.F. Vincent, and J. Laybourn-Parry (eds.) Polar Lakes and Rivers, pp. 249-268. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.
  • 3. Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the world (4th edition). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, USA. xx+ 601 pp.
  • 4. Savvaitova, K.A. 1980. Taxonomy and biogeography of chars in the Palearctic. In: E.K. Balon (ed.) Chars: salmonid fishes of the genus Salvelinus, pp. 281-294. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands.
  • 5. Dunham, J., Baxter, C., Fausch, K., Fredenberg, W., Kitano, S., Koizumi, I., Morita, K., Nakamura, T., Rieman, B., Savvaitova, K., Stanford, J., Taylor, E. & Yamamoto, S. 2008. Evolution, ecology and conservation of Dolly Varden, whitespotted char, and bull trout. Fisheries. 33(11):537-550.
  • 6. Reist, J.D., Johnson, J.D. & Carmichael, T.J. 1997. Variation and specific identity of char from northwestern Arctic Canada and Alaska. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 19:250-261.
  • 7. Reist, J., Fisheries and Oceans Canada, pers. comm. 2009.
  • 8. Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study. 2004. The Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study: final report. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. 822 pp.
  • 9. Maitland, P.S. 1995. World status and conservation of the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.). Nord. J. Freshwater. Res. 71:113-127.
  • 10. Maitland, P.S., Winfield, I.J., McCarthy, I.D. & Igoe, F. 2007. The status of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus in Britain and Ireland. Ecol. Freshw. Fish. 16(1): 6-19.
  • 11. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2002: Big Fish River Dolly Varden, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Stock Status Report D5-60: 15 pp: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/ status/2002/SSR2002_D5-60_e.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2009].
  • 12. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 1999: Hornaday River Arctic char, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Stock Status Report D5-68: 12 pp: http://fishfp.sasktelwebhosting.com/ publications/Hornaday%20Arctic%20Char%20SSR%20 (1999).pdf [Accessed 7 May 2009].
  • 13. Gudbergsson, G. 2004. Arctic charr in Lake Myvatn: the centennial catch record in the light of recent stock estimates. Aquat. Ecol. 38(2):271-284.
  • 14. Dempson, J.B., Shears, M., Furey, G. & Bloom, M. 2008. Resilience and stability of north Labrador Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, subject to exploitation and environmental variability. Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(1):57-67.
  • 15. Reist, J.D., Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Power, M., Dempson, J.B., Beamish, R.J., King, J.R., Carmichael, T.J. & Sawatzky, C.D. 2006. General effects of climate change on arctic fishes and fish populations. Ambio. 35(7):370-380.
  • 16. Reist, J.D., Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Power, M., Dempson, J.B., King, J.R. & Beamish, R.J. 2006. An overview of effects of climate change on selected arctic freshwater and anadromous fishes. Ambio. 35(7):381-387.
  • 17. Reist, J.D., Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Dempson, J.B., Power, M., Koeck, G., Carmichael, T.J., Sawatzky, C.D., Lehtonen, H. & Tallman, R.F. 2006. Effects of climate change and UV radiation on fisheries for arctic freshwater and anadromous species. Ambio. 35(7):402-410.
  • 18. Prowse, T.D., Wrona, F.J., Reist, J.D., Gibson, J.J., Hobbie, J.E., Levesque, L.M.J. & Vincent, W.F. 2006. Climate change effects on hydroecology of arctic freshwater ecosystems. Ambio. 35(7):347-358.
  • 19. Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Reist, J.D., Hobbie, J.E., Levesque, L.M.J., Macdonald, R.W. & Vincent, W.F. 2006. Effects of ultraviolet radiation and contaminantrelated stressors on arctic freshwater ecosystems. Ambio. 35(7):388-401.
  • 20. Gantner, N., Muir, D.C., Power, M., Iqaluk, D., Reist, J.D., Babaluk, J.A., Meili, M., Borg, H., Hammar, J., Michaud, W., Dempson, J.B. & Solomon, K.R. (in press). Mercury concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Canadian High Arctic. Part 2: Influence of lake biotic and abiotic characteristics on geographic trends in 27 populations. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. DOI: 10.1002/etc.96.
 
INDICATOR #07 Invasive species (human-induced)
  • 1. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1993. Harmful non-indigenous species in the United States, OTA-F-565 U.S. Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1993.
  • 2. Sakai, A.K., Allendorf, F.W., Holt, J.S., Lodge, D.M., Molofsky, J., Baughman, S., Cabin, R.J., Cohen, J.E., Ellstrand, N.C., McCauley, D.E., O’Neil, P., Parker, I.M., Thompson, J.N. & Weller, S.G. 2001. The population biology of invasive species. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32:305–332.
  • 3. Lassuy, D.R. 1995. Introduced species as a factor in extinction and endangerment of native fish species. Am. Fish. S. S. 15:391-396.
  • 4. Wilcove, D.S., Rothstein, D., Dubow, J. Phillips, A. & Losos, E. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. BioScience 48: 607-615.
  • 5. Colautti, R.I., Bailey, S.A., van Overdijk, C.D.A., Amundsen, K. & MacIsaac, H.J. 2006. Characterised and projected costs of nonindigenous species in Canada. Biol. Invasions. 8:45-59.
  • 6. Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R. & Morrison, D. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience. 50:53–65.
  • 7. De Rivera. C.E., Ruiz, G., Crooks, J., Wasson, K., Lonhart, S., Fofonoff, P., Steves, B., Rumrill, S., Brancato, M.S., Pegau, S., Bulthuis, D., Preisler, R.K., Schoch, C., Bowlby, E., DeVogelaere, A., Crawford, M., Gittings, S., Hines, A., Takata, L., Larson, K., Huber, T., Leyman, A.M., Collinetti, E., Pascot, T., Shull, S., Anderson, M. & Powell, S. 2005. Broad-Scale Non-indigenous Species Monitoring along the West Coast in National Marine Sanctuaries and National Estuarine Research Reserves. Report to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. 126 p. http://www.pwsrcac.org/ docs/d0021300.pdf [Accessed 4 January 2010].
  • 8. De Rivera, C.E., Steves, B.P., Ruiz, G.M., Fofonoff, P. & Hines, A.H. 2007. Northward spread of marine nonindigenous species along western North America: forecasting risk of colonization in Alaskan waters using environmental niche modeling. 36p. http://www.pwsrcac. org/docs/d0041100.pdf [Accessed 4 January 2010].
  • 9. Ruiz, G.M. & Hewitt, C.L. 2009. Latitudinal patterns of biological invasions in marine ecosystems: a polar perspective. pp. 347-358. In: I. Krupnik, M.A. Lang and S.E. Miller (eds.) Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions to International Polar Year Science. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC. ISBN 978-0-9788460-1-5.
  • 10. Cheung, W.W.L., Lam, V.W.Y., Sarmiento, J.L., Kearney, K., Watson, R. & Pauly, D. 2009. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries: DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.003153.x.
  • 11. Ruiz, G.M., Fofonoff, P.W., Carlton, J.T., Wonham, M.J. & Hines, A.H. 2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:481–531.
  • 12. Arctic Council. 2009. Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report. http://www.arcticportal.org/pame/amsa [Accessed 4 January 2010].
  • 13. E&E News 2009: http://www.eenews.net/climatewire/2009/ 08/25/7/ [Accessed 4 January 2009].
  • 14. Lewis, P.N., Hewitt, M.J., Riddle, C.L. & McMinn, A. 2003. Marine introductions in the Southern Ocean: an unrecognised hazard to biodiversity. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46(2):213-223.
  • 15. Lewis, P.N., M.J. Riddle & C.L. Hewitt. 2004. Management of exogenous threats to Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic Islands: balancing risks from TBT and non-indigenous marine organisms. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 49(11):999-1005.
  • 16. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2008. Invasive Alien Plants in Canada. CFIA. Ottawa, ON, 2008.
  • 17. Carlson, M., Lipina, I. & Michaelson, J. 2008. AAAS 2004 poster presentation: Invasive non-native plants in the Arctic. http://akweeds.uaa.alaska.edu/akweeds_training. htm [Accessed 4 January 2010].
  • 18. Elven, R. & Elvebakk, A. 1996. A catalogue of Svalbard plants, fungi, algae and cyanobacteria: part 1. vascular plants. Norsk Polar Institute Skrifter 198.
  • 19. Conn, J.S., Beattie, K.L., Shepard, M.A., Carlson, M.L., Lapina, I., Hebert, M., Gronquist, R., Densmore, R. & Rasy, M. 2008. Alaska Melilotus invasions: distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res. 40(2):298-308.
  • 20. Stachowicz, J.J., Terwin, H.H., Whitlatch, R.B. & Osman, R.W. 2002. Linking climate change and biological invasions: ocean warming facilitates nonindigenous species invasions. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99:15497–15500.
  • 21. Joergensen, L.L. & Primicerio, R. 2007. Impact scenario for the invasive red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) (Reptantia, Lithodidae) on Norwegian, native, epibenthic prey. Hydrobiologia. 590(1):47-54.
  • 22. Simberloff, D. & Von Holle, B.. 1999. Positive Interactions of Nonindigenous Species: Invasional Meltdown? Biol. Invasions. 1(1):21-32.
  • 23. Bella, E.M. 2009. Invasive plant species response to climate change in Alaska: bioclimatic models of current and predicted future ranges. 33p. http://alaska.fws.gov/ fisheries/invasive/reports.htm [Accessed 4 January 2010].
  • 24. Ruiz, G.M., Huber, T., Larson, K., McCann, L., Steves, B., Fofonoff, P. & Hines, H.H. 2006. Biological invasions in Alaska’s coastal marine ecosystems: establishing a baseline. 112p. Final report submitted to Prince William Sound Regional Citizens’ Advisory Council & U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. http://www.pwsrcac.org/docs/d0032100. pdf [Accessed 4 January 2010].
  • 25. NIMPIS - National Introduced Marine Species Program. 2009. National Biofouling Management Guidance for the Petroleum Production and Exploration Industry, 58p. Available at: http://www.marinepests.gov.au/petroleum [Accessed 4 January 2010].
  • 26. Ricciardi, A. & Simberloff, D. 2009. Assisted colonization is not a viable conservation strategy. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 (5):248-253.
 
INDICATOR #08 The Arctic Species Trend Index
  • 1. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 2. Post, E., Forchhammer, M.C., Bret-Harte, M.S., Callaghan, T.V., Christensen, T.R., Elberling, B., Fox, A.D., Gilg, O., Hik, D.S., Hoye, T.T., Ims, R.A., Jeppesen, E., Klein, D.R., Madsen, J., McGuire, A.D., Rysgaard, S., Schindler, D.E., Stirling, I., Tamstorf, M.P., Tyler, N.J.C., van der Wal, R., Welker, J., Wookey, P.A., Schmidt, N.M. & Aastrup, P. 2009. Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change. Science. 325: 1355-1358.
  • 3. Collen, B., Loh, J., Whitmee, S., McRae, L., Amin, R. & Baillie, J.E.M. 2009. Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the Living Planet Index. Conserv. Biol. 2009. 23(2): p. 317-327.
  • 4. Loh, J., Collen, B., McRae, L., Carranza, T.T., Pamplin, F.A., Amin, R. & Baillie, J.E.M. 2008. Living Planet Index. In: C. Hails (ed.) Living Planet Report 2008. WWF International: Gland, Switzerland.
  • 5. George, J.C., Zeh, J., Suydam, R. & Clark, C. 2006. Abundance and population trend of western arctic Bowhead Whales surveyed near Barrow, Alaska. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(4): p. 755-773.
  • 6. Overland, J. 2008. Fisheries in the Bering Sea. In: J. Richter- Menge, J. Overland, M. Svoboda, J. Box, M.J.J.E. Loonen, A. Proshutinsky, V. Romanovsky, D. Russell, C.D. Sawatzky, M. Simpkins, R. Armstrong, I. Ashik, L.-S. Bai, D. Bromwich, J. Cappelen, E. Carmack, J. Comiso, B. Ebbinge, I. Frolov, J.C. Gascard, M. Itoh, G.J. Jia, R. Krishfield, F. McLaughlin, W. Meier, N. Mikkelsen, J. Morison, T. Mote, S. Nghiem, D. Perovich, I. Polyakov, J.D. Reist, B. Rudels, U. Schauer, A. Shiklomanov, K. Shimada , V. Sokolov, M. Steele, M.-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, B. Veenhuis, D. Walker, J. Walsh, M. Wang, A. Weidick and C. ZoÅNckler (eds.) Arctic Report Card 2008. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Washington, D.C.
  • 7. Abraham, K.F. & Jefferies, R.L. 1997. High goose populations: causes, impacts and implications. In: B. Batt (ed.) Arctic Ecosystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group, Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington DC and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, pp. 7–72.
  • 8. Anisimov, O.A., Vaughan, D.G., Callaghan, T.V., Furgal, C., Marchant, H., Prowse, T.D., Vilhjalmsson, H. & Walsh, J.E. 2007. Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctica). In: M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds.) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 653-685p.
  • 9. Killengreen, S.T., Ims, R.A., Yoccoz, N.G., Brathen, K.A., Henden J.-A. & Schott, T. 2006. Structural characteristics of a low Arctic tundra ecosystem and the retreat of the Arctic Fox. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):459-472.
  • 10. Miller, F.L. & Gunn, A. 2003. Catastrophic die-off of Peary Caribou on the Western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic. Arctic. 56:686-702.
  • 11. Lantz, T.C. & Kokelj, S.V.. 2008. Increasing rates of retrogressive thaw slump activity in the Mackenzie Delta region, NWT, Canada. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35 (L06502.1).
  • 12. Sturm, M., Racine, C. & Tape, K. 2001. Climate change: Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature. 411:546-547.
  • 13. Wahren, C.-H.A., Walker, D. & Bret-Harte, M.S. 2005. Vegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow manipulation experiment. Glob. Change Biol. 11:537-552.
  • 14. Drent, R.H., Eichhorn, G., Flagstad, A., Van der Graaf, A.J., Litvin, K.E., & Stahl, J. 2007. Migratory connectivity in arctic geese: spring stopovers are the weak links in meeting targets for breeding. J. Ornith. 148(2):501-514.
  • 15. Stroud, D.A., Baker, A., Blanco, D.E., Davidson, N.C., Delany, S., Ganter, B., Gill, R., GonzaÅLlez, P., Haanstra, L., Morrison, R.I.G., Piersma, T., Scott, D.A., Thorup, O., West, R., Wilson, J., & ZoÅNckler, C. 2006. The conservation and population status of the world’s waders at the turn of the millennium. In: C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith and D.A. Stroud (eds.) Waterbirds around the world. pp. 643-648. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.
  • 16. Piersma, T., Koolhaas, A., Dekinga, A., Beukema, J.J., Dekker, R. & Essink, K. 2001. Long-term indirect effects of mechanical cockle-dredging on intertidal bivalve stocks in the Wadden Sea. J. Appl. Ecol. 38:976-990.
  • 17. Niles, L.J., Bart, J., Sitters, H.P., Dey, A.D., Clark, K.E., Atkinson, P.W., Baker, A.J., Bennett, K.A., Kalasz, K.S., Clark, N.A., Clark, J., Gillings, S., Gates, A.S., Gonzalez, P.M., Hernandez, D.E., Minton, C.D.T., Morrison, R.I.G., Porter, R.R., Ross, R.K. & Veitch, C.R. 2009. Effects of Horseshoe Crab Harvest in Delaware Bay on Red Knots: Are Harvest Restrictions Working? BioScience. 59(2):153.
  • 18. Meltofte, H., Piersma, T., Boyd, H., McCaffery, B., Ganter, B., Golovnyuk, V.V., Graham, K., Gratto-Trevor, C.L., Morrison, R.I.G., Nol, E., RoÅNsner, H.-U., Schamel, D., Schekkerman, H., Soloviev, M.Y., Tomkovich, P.S., Tracy, D.M., Tulp, I. & Wennerberg, L. 2007. Effects of climate variation on the breeding ecology of Arctic shorebirds. – Meddelelser om Gr.nland, Biosc. 59: 48 pp.
  • 19. Hinzman, L.D., Bettez, N.D., Bolton, W.R., Chapin, F.S., Dyurgerov, M.B., Fastie, C.L., Griffith, B., Hollister, R.D., Hope, A., Huntington, H.P., Jensen, A.M., Jia, G.J., Jorgenson, T., Kane, D.L., Klein, D.R., Kofinas, G., Lynch, A.H., Lloyd, A.H., Mcguire, A.D., Nelson, F.E., Oechel, W.C., Osterkamp, T.E., Racine, C.H., Romanovsky, V.E., Stone, R.S., Stow, D.A., Sturm, M., Tweedie, C.E., Vourlitis, G.L., Walker, M.D., Walker, D.A., Webber, P.J., Welker, J.M., Winker, K.S., & Yoshikawa, K. 2005. Evidence And Implications Of Recent Climate Change In Northern Alaska And Other Arctic Regions. Climatic Change. 72:251-298.
  • 20. Stroeve, J., Holland, M.M., Meier, W., Scambos, T. & Serreze, M. 2007. Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(L09501).
 
INDICATOR #09 Arctic genetic diversity
  • 1. O’Corry-Crowe, G. 2008. Climate change and the molecular ecology of Arctic marine mammals. Ecol. Appl. 18:S56-S76.
  • 2. Pearce, J.M., Talbot, S.L., Petersen, M.R. & Rearick, J.R. 2005. Limited genetic differentiation among breeding, molting, and wintering groups of the threatened Steller’s eiders: The role of historic and contemporary factors. Conserv. Genet. 6: 743-757.
  • 3. Marthinsen, G., Wennerberg, L., Solheim, R. & Lifjeld, J.T. 2009. No phylogeographic structure in the circumpolar snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus). Conserv. Genet. 10:923-933.
  • 4. Markova, A. K., Smirnov, N.G., Kozharinov, A.V., Kazantseva, N.E., Simakova, A.N. & Kitaev, L.M. 1995. Late Pleistocene distribution and diversity of mammals in northern Eurasia. Paleontologia I Evolucia 28-29:5-143.
  • 5. Faunmap Working Group. 1996. Spatial response of mammals to late Quaternary environmental fluctuations. Science 272: 1601-1606.
  • 6. Svendsen, J.I., Alexanderson, H., Astakhov, V.I. Demidov, I., Dowdeswell, J. A., Funder, S., Gataullin, V., Henriksen, M., Hjort, C., Houmark-Nielsen, M., Hubberten, H.W., Ingolfsson, O., Jakobsson, M., Kjaer, K. H., Larsen, E., Lokrantz, H., Lunkka, J. P., Lysa, A., Mangerud, J., Matiouchkov, A., Murray, A., Moller, P., Niessen, F., Nikolskaya, O., Polyak, L., Saarnisto, M., Siegert, C., Siegert, M. J., Spielhagen, R. F. & Stein, R. 2004. Late quaternary ice sheet history of northern Eurasia. Quaternary Sci. Rev., 23:1229–1271.
  • 7. Dyke, A.S., Andrews, J.T., Clark, P.U., England, J.H., Miller, G.H., Shaw, J. & Veillette, J.J. 2002. The Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 21:9–31.
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INDICATOR #10 Arctic sea-ice ecosystem
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  • 8. Rozanska, M., Poulin, M. & Gosselin, M. 2008. Protist entrapment in newly formed sea ice in the coastal Arctic Ocean. J. Mar. Syst. 74:887-901.
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  • 23. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2001. Final determination of critical habitat for the spectacled eider. Anchorage, AK.
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  • 28. Irons, D.B., Anker-Nilssen, T., Gaston, A.J., Byrd, G.V., Falk, K., Gilchrist, G., Hario, M., Hjernquist, M., Krasnov, Y.V., Mosbech, A., Olsen, B., Petersen, A., Reid, J., Robertson, G., Strom, H. & Wohl, K.D. 2008. Magnitude of climate shift determines direction of circumpolar seabird population trends. Global Change Biol. 14:1455-1463.
  • 29. Gaston, A.J. & Gilchrist, H.G. 2009. Murres. In: J.Richter- Menge and J.E. Overland (eds.) 2009: Arctic Report Card 2009. pp. 59-64. www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard [Accessed 12 January 2010].
  • 30. Laidre, K.L., Heide-Jorgensen, M.P., Nyeland, J., Mosbech, A. & Boertmann, D. 2008. Latitudinal gradients in sea ice and primary production determine Arctic seabird colony size in Greenland. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 275:2695–2702.
  • 31. Moore, S.E. & Huntington, H.P. 2008. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl):S157–S165.
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  • 33. Laidre, K.L., Stirling, I., Lowry, L.F., Wiig, .., Heide- J.rgensen, M.P. & Ferguson, S.H., 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl.):S97–S125.
  • 34. Ragen, T.J., Huntington, H.P. & Hovelsrud, G.K. 2008. Conservation of arctic marine mammals faced with climate change. Ecol. Appl. 18(Suppl.):S166-S174.
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  • 36. Lowry, L., Kovacs, K. & Burkanov, V. 2008. Odobenus rosmarus. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/ redlist/details/15106/0 [Accessed 03 January 2010].
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  • 40. Lydersen, C., Aars, J. & Kovacs, K.M. 2008. Estimating the number of walruses in Svalbard based on aerial surveys and behavioural data from satellite telemetry. Arctic. 61: 119–128.
  • 41. SipilaÅN, T. & Kokkonen, T. 2008: Saimaannorppakannan tila vuonna 2007. Ilmaston muutoksen vaikutus sekaÅN sen aiheuttaman haitan kompensoinnista. MetsaÅNhallitus, EtelaÅN- Suomen Luontopalvelut, julkaisematon asiakirja nro 657/41/2008.
  • 42. Karlsson, O., HaÅNrkoÅNnen, T. & BaÅNcklin, B.M. 2007. Seals on the increase (In Swedish -SaÅNlar paÅã uppgaÅãng). Havet. 2007: 84–89.
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  • 44. Grebmeier, J.M., Overland, J.E., Moore, S.E., Farley, E.V., Carmack, E.C., Cooper, L.W., Frey, K.E., Helle, J.H., McLaughlin, F.A., & McNutt, S.L. 2006. A major ecosystem shift in the northern Bering Sea. Science. 311:1461–1464.
  • 45. Moline, M.A. 2008. High Latitude Changes in Ice Dynamics and Their Impact on Polar Marine Ecosystems. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1134(1).
  • 46. Bluhm, B.A. & Gradinger, R. 2008. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals. Ecol. Appl. 18(Suppl): S77–S96.
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  • 49. Cheung, W.W.L., Lam, V.W.Y., & Pauly, D. 2008. Dynamic Bioclimate Envelope Model to Preduct Climate-Inducted Changes in Distribution of Marine Fishes and Invertebrates. In: W.W.L.Cheung, V.W.Y. Lam, and D. Pauly (eds.) Modelling Present and Climate-shifted Distribution of Marine Fishes and Invertebrates. Fisheries Centre Research Report 16(3):5-50.
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INDICATOR #11 Greening of the Arctic
  • 1. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 2. Bigelow, N. H., Brubaker, L.B., Edwards, M.E., Harrison, S.P., Prentice, I.C., Anderson, P.M., Andreev, A.A., Bartlein, P.J., Christensen, T.R., Cramer, W., Kaplan, J.O., Lozhkin, A.V., Matveyeva, N.V., Murray, D.F., McGuire, A.D., Razzhivin, V.Y., Ritchie, J.C., Smith, B., Walker, D.A., Gajewski, K., Wolf, V., Holmqvist, B.H., Igarashi, Y., Kremenetskii, K., Paus, A., Pisaric, M.F.J. & Volkova, V.S. 2003. Climate change and Arctic ecosystems: 1. Vegetation changes north of 55ÅãN between the last glacial maximum, mid-Holocene, and present. J. Geophys. Res. 108:D19, 8170, doi:10.1029/2002JD002558.
  • 3. Sturm, M., Racine, C. & Tape, K. 2001. Climate change - Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature. 411:546-547.
  • 4. Tape, K.E.N., Sturm, M. & Racine, C. 2006. The evidence for shrub expansion in Northern Alaska and the Pan-Arctic. Global Change Biol. 12:686-702.
  • 5. Lantz, T.C., Kokelj, S.V., Gergel, S.E. & Henry, G.H.R. 2009. Relative impacts of disturbance and temperature: persistent changes in microenvironment and vegetation in retrogressive thaw slumps. Global Change Biol. 15:1664-1675.
  • 6. Hinzman, L.D., Bettez, N.D., Bolton, W.R., Chapin, F.S., Dyurgerov, M.B., Fastie, C.L., Griffith, B., Hollister, R.D., Hope, A., Huntington, H.P., Jensen, A.M., Jia, G.J., Jorgenson, T., Kane, D.L., Klein, D.R., Kofinas, G., Lynch, A.H., Lloyd, A.H., McGuire, A.D., Nelson, F.E., Oechel, W.C., Osterkamp, T.E., Racine, C.H., Romanovsky, V.E., Stone, R.S., Stow, D.A., Sturm, M., Tweedie, C.E., Vourlitis, G.L., Walker, M.D., Walker, D.A., Webber, P.J., Welker, J.M., Winker, K. & Yoshikawa, K. 2005. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions. Climatic Change. 72:251-298.
  • 7. Shaver, G.R., Bret-Harte, S.M., Jones, M.H., Johnstone, J., Gough, L., Laundre, J. & Chapin, F.S. 2001. Species composition interacts with fertilizer to control long-term change in tundra productivity. Ecology. 82:3163-3181.
  • 8. Wahren, C.H.A., Walker, M.D., & Bret-Harte, M.S. 2005. Vegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow manipulation experiment. Global Change Biol. 11:537-552.
  • 9. Hill, G. & Henry, G.H.R. Responses of High Arctic wet sedge tundra to climate warming since 1980. (in submission). Global Change Biol.
  • 10. Hudson, J. M. & Henry, G.H.R. 2009. Increased plant productivity in a High Arctic heath community from 1981- 2008. Ecology. 90(10):2657–2663.
  • 11. Wang, M. & Overland, J.E. 2004. Detecting arctic climate change using KoÅNppen climate classification. Climatic Change. 67:43-62.
  • 12. Myneni R.B., Tucker, C.J., Asrar, G. & Keeling, C.D. 1998. Interannual variations in satellite sensed vegetation index data from 1981 to 1991. J. Geophys. Res. 103:6145-6160.
  • 13. Zhou, L. M., Tucker, C.J., Kaufmann, R.K., Slayback, D., Shabanov, N.V., & Myneni, R.B. 2001. Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. J. Geophys. Res- Atmos. 106:20069-20083.
  • 14. Bunn, A.G., Goetz, S.J. & Fiske, G.J. 2005. Observed and predicted responses of plant growth to climate across Canada. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32:L16710, doi:10.1029/2005GL023646.
  • 15. Goetz, S.J., Mack, M.C., Gurney, K.R., Randerson, J.T., & Houghton, R.A. 2007. Ecosystem responses to recent climate change and fire disturbance at northern high latitudes: observations and model results contrasting northern Eurasia and North America. Environ. res. Lett. 2 (4):045031.
  • 16. Callaghan, T.V., BjoÅNrn, L.O., Chapin III, F.S., Chernov, Y., Torben, R., Christensen, T.R., Huntley, B., Ims, R., Johansson, M., Riedlinger, D.J., Jonasson, S., Jolly, D., Matveyeva, N., Oechel, W., Panikov, N. & Shaver, G. 2005. Arctic Tundra and Polar Desert Ecosystems. In:.Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 17. Suarez, F., Binkley, D., Kaye, M.W. & Stottlemyer, R.. 1999. Expansion of forest stands into tundra in the Noatak National Preserve, northwest Alaska. Ecoscience. 6: 465-470.
  • 18. Lloyd, A.H. 2005. Ecological histories from Alaskan tree lines provide insight into future change. Ecology. 86:1687- 1695.
  • 19. ZoÅNckler, C., Miles, L., Fish, L., Wolf, A., Rees, G. & Danks, F. 2008. Potential impact of climate change and reindeer density on tundra indicator species in the Barents Sea region. Climatic Change. 87:119-130.
  • 20. Rustad, L.E., Campbell, J.L., Marion, G.M., Norby, R.J., Mitchell, M.J., Hartley, A.E., Cornelissen, J.H.C., Gurevitch, J. & Gcte, N. 2001. A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia. 126:543-562.
  • 21. Arft, A.M., Walker, M.D., Gurevitch, J., Alatalo, J.M., Bret- Harte, M.S., Dale, M., Diemer, M., Gugerli, F., Henry, G.H.R., Jones, M.H., Hollister, R.D., Jonsdottir, I.S., Laine, K., Levesque, E., Marion, G.M., Molau, U., Molgaard, P., Nordenhall, U., Raszhivin, V., Robinson, C.H., Starr, G., Stenstrom, A., Stenstrom, M., Totland, O., Turner, P.L., Walker, J.L., Webber, P.J., Welker, J.M. & Wookey, P.A. 1999. Responses of Tundra Plants to Experimental Warming: Meta-Analysis of the International Tundra Experiment. Ecol. Monog. 69:491-511.
  • 22. Walker, M.D., Wahren, C.H., Hollister, R.D., Henry, G.H.R., Ahlquist, L.E., Alatalo, J.M., Bret-Harte, M.S., Calef, M.P., Callaghan, T.V., Carroll, A.B., Epstein, H.E., Jonsdottir, I.S., Klein, J.A., Magnusson, B., Molau, U., Oberbauer, S.F., Rewa, S.P., Robinson, C.H., Shaver, G.R., Suding, K.N., Thompson, C.C., Tolvanen, A., Totland, O., Turner, P.L., Tweedie, C.E., Webber, P.J. & Wookey, P.A. 2006. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome. P. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 103:1342-1346.
  • 23. Cornelissen, J.H.C., Callaghan, T.V., Alatalo, J.M., Michelsen, A., Graglia, E., Hartley, A.E., Hik, D.S., Hobbie, S.E., Press, M.C., Robinson, C.H., Henry, G.H.R., Shaver, G.R., Phoenix, G.K., Gwynn Jones, D., Jonasson, S., Chapin, F.S., Molau, U., Neill, C., Lee, J.A., Melillo, J.M., Sveinbjornsson, B. & Aerts, R. 2001. Global change and arctic ecosystems: is lichen decline a function of increases in vascular plant biomass? J. Ecol. 89:984-994.
  • 24. Matveyeva, N. & Chernov, Y. 2000. Biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems. Pages 233–274 in M. Nuttuall and T. V. Callaghan, editors. The Arctic: Environment, People, Policy. Harwood Academic.
  • 25. Chapin, F.S., Shaver, G.R., Giblin, A.E., Nadelhoffer, K.J. & Laundre, J.A. 1995. Responses of arctic tundra to experimental and observed changes in climate. Ecology. 76:694-711.
  • 26. Hollister, R. D., Webber, P.J. & Tweedie, C.E. 2005. The response of Alaskan arctic tundra to experimental warming: differences between short- and long-term responses. Global Change Biol. 11:525-536.
 
INDICATOR #12 Reproductive phenology in terrestrial ecosystems
  • 1. Post, E., Forchhammer, M.C., Bret-Harte, M.S., Callaghan, T.V., Christensen, T.R., Elberling, B., Fox, A. D., Gilg, O., Hik, D.S., H.ye, T.T., Ims, R.A., Jeppesen, E., Klein, D.R., Madsen, J., McGuire, A.D., Rysgaard, S., Schindler, D.E., Stirling, I., Tamstorf, M.P., Tyler, N.J.C., Van der Wal, R., Welker, J., Wookey, P.A., Schmidt, N.M. & Aastrup, P. 2009. Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change. Science. 325:1355–1358.
  • 2. Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 37:637–669.
  • 3. Parmesan, C. 2007. Influences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming. Glob. Change Biol. 13:1860–1872.
  • 4. ThoÅLrhallsdoÅLttir, T.E. 1998. Flowering phenology in the central highland of Iceland and implications for climatic warming in the Arctic. Oecologia. 114:43–49.
  • 5. Molau, U., NordenhaÅNll, U. & Eriksen, B. 2005. Onset of flowering and climate variability in an alpine landscape: a 10- year study from Swedish Lapland. Am. J. Bot. 92:422–431.
  • 6. Menzel, A., Sparks, T.H., Estrella, N., Koch, E., Aasa, A., Ahas, R., Alm-Kübler, K., Bissolli, P., BraslavskaÅL, O., Briede, A., Chmielewski, F.M., Crepinsek, Z., Curnel, Y., Dahl, AÅã., Defila, C., Donnelly, A., Filella, Y., Jatczak, K., MaÅãge, F., Mestre, A., Nordli, .., Penuelas, J., Pirinen, P., RemišovaÅL, V., Scheifinger, H., Striz, M., Susnik, A., van Vliet, A.J.H., Wielgolaski, F.-E., Zach, S. & Zust, A. 2006. European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Glob. Change Biol. 12:1969–1976.
  • 7. Walker, M.D., Wahren, C.H., Hollister, R.D., Henry, G.H.R., Ahlquist, L.E., Alatalo, J.M., Bret-Harte, M.S., Calef, M.P., Callaghan, T.V., Carroll, A.B., Epstein, H.E., JoÅLnsdoÅLttir, I.S., Klein, J.A., MagnuÅLsson, B., Molau, U., Oberbauer, S.F., Rewa, S.P., Robinson, C.H., Shaver, G.R., Suding, K.N., Thompson, C.C., Tolvanen, A., Totland, .., Turner, P.L., Tweedie C.E., Webber, P.J. & Wookey, P.A. 2006 Plant community response to experimental warming across the tundra biome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 103:1342–1346.
  • 8. Tulp, I. & Schekkerman, H. 2006. Has prey availability for arctic birds advanced with climate change? Hindcasting the abundance of tundra arthropods using weather and seasonal variation. Arctic .61: 48–60.
  • 9. H.ye, T.T., Ellebjerg, S.M. & Philipp, M. 2007. The impact of climate on flowering in the High Arctic - the case of Dryas in a hybrid zone. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 39:412–421.
  • 10. H.ye, T.T. & Forchhammer, M.C. 2008. Phenology of higharctic arthropods: effects of climate on spatial, seasonal and inter-annual variation. Adv. Ecol. Res. 40: 299–324
  • 11. H.ye, T.T., Post, E., Meltofte, H., Schmidt, N.M. & Forchhammer, M.C. 2007. Rapid advancement of spring in the High Arctic. Curr. Biol. 17:R449–R451.
  • 12. Meltofte, H., H.ye, T.T., Schmidt, N.M. & Forchhammer, M.C. 2007. Differences in food abundance cause interannual variation in the breeding phenology of High Arctic waders. Polar Biol. 30:601–606.
  • 13. Post, E., Pedersen, C., Wilmers, C.C. & Forchhammer, M.C. 2008. Warming, plant phenology and the spatial dimension of trophic mismatch for large herbivores. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 275:2005–2013.
  • 14. Post, E., Penn State University, pers. comm. 2009.
  • 15. Post, E. & Forchhammer, M.C. 2008. Climate change reduces reproductive success of an arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B 363: 2369–2375.
  • 16. Tombre, I.M., H.gda, K.A., Madsen, J., Griffin, L.R., Kuijken, E., Shimmings, P., Rees, E. & Verscheure, C. 2008. The onset of spring and timing of migration in two arctic nesting goose populations: the pink-footed goose Anser bachyrhynchus and the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. J. Avian Biol. 39:691–703.
  • 17. Niehaus, A.C. & Ydenberg, R.C. 2006. Ecological factors associated with the breeding and migratory phenology of high-latitude breeding western sandpipers. Polar Biol. 30:11–17.
  • 18. Dickey, M.-H., Gauthier, G. & Cadieux, M.-C. 2008. Climatic effects on the breeding phenology and reproductive success of an arctic-nesting goose species. Glob. Change Biol. 14:1973–1985.
 
INDICATOR #13 Appearing and disappearing lakes in the Arctic and their impact on biodiversity
  • 1. Vincent, W.F., Hobbie, J.E. & Laybourn-Parry, J. 2008. Introduction to the limnology of high-latitude lake and river ecosystems. In: W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry (eds.) Polar Lakes and Rivers. pp. 1-23. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK,
  • 2. Hinkel, K.M., Frohn, R.C., Nelson, F.E., Eisner, W.R. & Beck, R.A. 2005. Morphometric and spatial analysis of thaw lakes and drained thaw lake basins in the Western Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. Permafrost Periglac. 16:327–341.
  • 3. Cote, M.M. & Burn, C.R. 2002. The oriented lakes of Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, Western Arctic Coast, Canada: a GIS-based analysis. Permafrost Periglac. 13:61–70.
  • 4. Marsh, P., Russell, M., Pohl, S., Waywood, H. & Onclin, C. 2009. Change in thaw lake drainage in the Western Canadian Arctic from 1950 to 2000. Hydrol. Process. 23:145-158.
  • 5. Frohn, R.C., Hinkel, K.M. & Eisner, W.R. 2005. Satellite remote sensing classification of thaw lakes and drained thaw lake basins on the North Slope of Alaska. Remote Sens. Environ. 97:116-126.
  • 6. Hinkel, K.M., Jones, B.M., Eisner, W.R., Cuomo, C.J., Beck, R.A. & Frohn, R. 2007. Methods to assess natural and anthropogenic thaw lake drainage on the western Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska. J. Geophys. Res. 12:F02S16, doi: 10.1029/2006JF000584.
  • 7. White, D.M., Gerlach, S.C., Loring, P., Tidwell, A.C. & Chambers, M.C. 2007. Food and water security in a changing arctic climate. Environ. Res. Lett. 2, 4 pp.
  • 8. Hinkel, K.M., Eisner, W.R. & Bockheim, J.G. 2003. Spatial extent, age, and carbon stocks in drained thaw lake basins on the Barrow Peninsula, Alaska. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res. 35:291–300.
  • 9. Callaghan, T.V., BjoÅNrn, L.O., Chernov, Y., Chapin, T., Chirstensen, T.R., Huntley, B., Ims, R.A., Johansson, M., Jolly, D., Jonasson, S., Matveyeva, N., Panikov, N., Oechel, W., Shaver, G., Schaphoff, S. & Sitch, S. 2004. Effects of changes in climate on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the climate systems. Ambio. 33(7):459-468.
  • 10. Walter, K.M., Zimov, S.A., Chanton, J.P., Verbyla, D. & Chapin III, F.S. 2006. Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming. Nature. 443:71-75.
  • 11. Jorgenson, M.T., Racine, C.H., Walters, J.C. & Osterkamp, T.E. 2001. Permafrost degradation and ecological changes associated with a warming climate in central Alaska. Climatic Change. 48:551-579.
  • 12. Osterkamp, T.E., Viereck, L., Shur, Y., Jorgenson, M.T., Racine, C., Doyle, A. & Boone, R.D. 2000. Observations of Thermokarst and Its Impact on Boreal Forests in Alaska, U.S.A.. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res. 32(3):303-315.
  • 13. Payette, S., Delwaid, A., Caccianiga, M. & Beachemin, M. 2004. Accelerated thawing of subarctic peat land permafrost over the last 50 years. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L18208, doi:10.1029/2004GL020358.
  • 14. Hinzman, L.D., Bettez, N.D., Bolton, W.R., Chapin, F.S., Dyurgerov, M.B., Fastie, C.L., Griffith, B., Hollister, R.D., Hope, A., Huntington, H.P., Jensen, A.M., Jia, G.J., Jorgenson, T., Kane, D.L., Klein, D.R., Kofinas, G., Lynch, A.H., Lloyd, A.H., Mcguire, D., Nelson, F.E., Oechel, W.C., Osterkamp, T.E., Racine, C.H., Romanovsky, V.E., Stone, R.S., Stow, D.A., Sturm, M., Tweedie, C.E., Vourlitis, G.L., Walker, M.D., Walker, D.A., Webber, P.J., Welker, J.M., Winker, K.S. & Yoshikawa, K. 2005. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions. Climatic Change. 72:251-298.
  • 15. Jia, G.J. & Epstein, H.E. 2003. Greening of arctic Alaska, 1981–2001. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(20), 2067, doi:10.1029/2003GL018268.
  • 16. Riordan, B., Verbyla, D. & McGuire, D.A. 2006. Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950-2002 remotely sensed images. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: G04002, doi: 10.1029/2005JG000150.
  • 17. Smith, L.C., Sheng, Y., MacDonald, G.M. & Hinzman, L.D. 2005. Disappearing Arctic Lakes. Science. 308:1429.
  • 18. Marsh, P. 2008. Modeling discharge during the rapid drainage of thaw lakes in the western Canadian Arctic. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (eds.) Proc. Ninth Intl. Conf. Permafrost. pp. 1143-1147. Institute for Northern Engineering. Fairbanks, Alaska.
  • 19. Marsh, P. & Neumann, N.N. 2001. Processes controlling the rapid drainage of two ice-rich permafrost dammed lakes in northwest Canada. Hydrol. Processes. 15:3433-3446.
  • 20. Labrecque, S., Lacelle, D., Duguay, C., Lauriol, B. & Hawkings, J. 2009. Contemporary (1951) Evolution of Lakes in the Old Crow Basin, Northern Yukon, Canada: Remote Sensing, Numerical Modelling, and Stable Isotope Analysis. Arctic. 62:225-238.
  • 21. Jorgenson, M.T., Shur, Y.L. & Pullman, E.R. 2006. Abrupt increase in permafrost degradation in Arctic Alaska. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33:L02503, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024960.
  • 22. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 23. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution to of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Mannging, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: 996 pp.
  • 24. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Perry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 851 pp.
  • 25. Bates, B.C., Kundzewicz, Z.W., Wu, S., & Palutikof, J.P. (eds.) 2008. Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 210 pp.
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  • 27. French, H. 2007. The Periglacial Environment. 3rd Edition. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., West Sussex, England. pp. 201-204.
  • 28. Hobbie, J., Peterson, B., Bettez, N., Deegan, L., O’Brien, W., Kling, G., Kipphut, G., Bowden, W. & Hershey, A. 1999. Impact of global change on the biogeochemistry and ecology of an Arctic freshwater system. Polar Res. 18:207-214.
  • 29. Rouse, W. Douglas, M., Hecky, R., Hershey, A., Kling, G., Lesack, L., Marsh, P., McDonald, M., Nicholson, B., Roulet, N. & Smol, J. 1997. Effect of climate change on the freshwaters of arctic and subarctic North America. Hydrol. Process. 11:873-902.
  • 30. Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Reist, J.D., Hobbie, J.E., Levesque, L.M.J. & Vincent, W.F. 2006. Climate change effects on aquatic biota, ecosystem structure and function. Ambio. 35(7):359-369.
  • 31. Frey, K.E. & McClelland, J.W. 2009. Impacts of permafrost degradation on arctic river biogeochemistry. Hydrol. Process. 23:169-182.
  • 32. Callaghan, T.V., BjoÅNrn, L.O., Chernov, Y., Chapin, T., Chirstensen, T.R., Huntley, B., Ims, R.A., Johansson, M., Jolly, D., Jonasson, S., Matveyeva, N., Panikov, N., Oechel, W., Shaver, G., Schaphoff, S. & Sitch, S. 2004. Synthesis of effects in four arctic subregions. Ambio. 33(7):469-473.
  • 33. Reist, J.D., Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Dempson, J.B., Power, M., KoÅNck, G., Carmichael, T.J., Sawatzky, D., Lehtonen, H. & Tallman, R.F. 2006. Effect of climate change and UV radiation on fisheries for arctic freshwater and anadromous species. Ambio. 35(7):402-410.
  • 34. Prowse, T.D., Furgal, C., Wrona, F.J. & Reist, J. D. (in press). Implications of Climate Change for Northern Canada: Freshwater, Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Ambio.
  • 35. Furgal, C., Prowse, T.D., Ogden, A. & Reist, J.D. (in press). Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: forestry, fisheries and tourism. Ambio.
 
INDICATOR #14 Arctic peatlands
  • 1. Vompersky S.E., Sirin A., Tsyganova, O.P., Valyaeva, N.A. & Maikov, D.A. 2005. Peatland and paludified lands of Russia: attempt at analysis of spatial distribution and diversity: Izvestia RAS: Geography. 5:39–50.
  • 2. Parish, F., Sirin, A., Charman, D., Joosten, H., Minayeva, T. & Silvius M (eds.) 2008. Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change: Main Report. Global Environment Centre, Kuala Lumpur and Wetlands International, Wageningen, 179 pp.
  • 3. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 4. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 976 pp.
  • 5. Payette, S., Delwaide, A., Caccianiga, M. & Beauchemin, M. 2004. Accelerated thawing of subarctic peatland permafrost over the last 50 years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18208, doi:10.1029/2004GL020358.
  • 6. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar). 1996. Resolution VI.6: The Wetland Conservation Fund. 6th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties, Brisbane, Australia, 19-27 March 1996. http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsardocuments- guidelines-resolution-vi-6-the/main/ramsar/1- 31-105%5E21019_4000_0__ [Accessed 08 March 2010].
  • 7. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar). 2002. Resolution VIII.17: Guidelines for Global Action on Peatlands. 8th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands, Valencia, Spain, 18-26 November 2002. http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ ramsar-documents-resol-resolution-viii-17/main/ramsar/1- 31-107%5E21389_4000_0__ [Accessed 08 March 2010].
  • 8. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 2008. COP 8 Decision IX/16: Biodiversity and Climate Change. 9th Meeting of the Conference of Parties to the CBD, Bonn, Germany, 19 - 30 May 2008. http://www.cbd.int/decision/ cop/?id=11659 [Accessed 08 March 2010].
  • 9. Minayeva, T. & Sirin, A. 2009. Wetlands - threatened Arctic ecosystems: vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options. UNESCO publication “Climate change and Arctic sustainable development. Section 2 – Biodiversity and ecosystem services”, pp 76-83.
 
INDICATOR #15 Effects of decreased freshwater ice cover duration on biodiversity
  • 1. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 2. Walsh, S.E., Vavrus, S.J., Foley, J.A., Fisher, V.A., Wynne, R.H. & Lenters, J.D. 1998. Global patterns of lake ice phenology and climate: Model simulations and observations. J. Geophys Res. 103(D22):28,825-28,837.
  • 3. Prowse, T.D. and Beltaos, S. 2002. Climatic control of riverice hydrology: a review. Hydrol. Process. 16(4):805-822.
  • 4. Douglas, M.S.V., Smol, J.P. & Blake Jr., W. 1994. Marked post-18th century environmental change in high-Arctic ecosystems. Science. 266 (5184):416–419.
  • 5. Korhola A., Sorvari, S., Rautio, M., Appleby, P.G., Dearing, J.A., Hu, Y., Rose, N., Lami, A. & Cameron, N.G. 2002. A multi-proxy analysis of climate impacts on the recent development of subarctic Lake SaanajaÅNrvi in Finnish Lapland. J. Paleolimnol.28: 59 – 77.
  • 6. Michelutti, N., Douglas, M.S.V. & Smol, J.P. 2003. Diatom response to recent climatic change in a high arctic lake (Char Lake, Cornwallis Island, Nunavut). Global Planet. Change. 38:257 – 271.
  • 7. Rühland, K., Priesnitz, A. & Smol, J.P. 2003. Paleolimnological Evidence from Diatoms for Recent Environmental Changes in 50 Lakes across Canadian Arctic Treeline. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res. 35(1):110-123.
  • 8. Smol, J.P., Wolfe, A.P., Birks, H.J.B., Douglas, M.S.V., Jones, V.J., Korhola, A., Pienitz, R., Rühland, K., Sorvari, S., Antoniades, D., Brooks, S.J., Fallu, M-A., Hughes, M., Keatley, B.E., Laing, T.E., Michelutti, N., Nazarova, L., Nyman, M., Paterson, A.M., Perren, B., Quinlan, R., Rautio, M., Saulnier- Talbot, EÅL., Siitonen, S., Solovieva, N. & WeckstroÅNm, J. 2005. Climate-driven regime shifts in the biological communities of arctic lakes. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102 (12):4397-4402.
  • 9. Sorvari, S., Korhola, A. & Thompson, R. 2002. Lake diatom response to recent Arctic warming in Finnish Lapland. Global Change Biol. 8:171-181.
  • 10. Magnuson, J.J., Robertson, D.M., Benson, B.J., Wynne, R.H., Livingstone, D.M., Arai, T., Assel, R.A., Barry, R.G., Card, V., Kuusisto, E., Granin, N.G., Prowse, T.D., Stewart, K.M. & Vuglinski, V.S. 2000. Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science. 289:1743 – 1746.
  • 11. Prowse, T.D., Bonsal, B.R., Duguay, C.R. & Lacroix, M.P. 2007b. River-ice break-up/freeze-up: a review of climatic drivers, historical trends and future predictions. Annal Glaciol. 46:443-451.
  • 12. Duguay, C.R., Prowse, T.D., Bonsal, B.R., Brown, R.D., Lacroix, M.P. & MeÅLnard, P. 2006. Recent trends in Canadian lake ice cover. Hydrol. Process. 20:781 – 801.
  • 13. Korhonen, J. 2006. Long-term changes in lake ice cover in Finland. Nord. Hydrol. 37 (4-5):347-363.
  • 14. Bonsal, B.R. and Prowse, T.D. 2003. Trends and variability in spring and autumn 0ÅãC-isotherm dates over Canada. Climatic Change 57:341 – 358.
  • 15. Walsh, J., Anisimov, O., Hagen, J.O., Jakobsson, T., Oerlemans, J., Prowse, T.D., Romanovsky, V., Savelieva, N., Serreze, M., Shiklomanov, A., Shiklomanov, I.& Solomon, S. 2005. Chapter 6: Crysophere and Hydrology. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 183-242.
  • 16. Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Reist, J.D., Beamish, R., Gibson, J.J., Hobbie, J., Jeppesen, E., King, J., Koeck, G., Korhola, A., Levesque, L., Macdonald, R., Power, M., Skvortsov, V. and Vincent, W. 2005. Chapter 8: Freshwater Ecosystems and Fisheries. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: 353-452.
  • 17. Anisimov, O.A., Vaughan, D.G., Callaghan, T.V., Furgal, C., Marchant, H., Prowse, T.D., Viljalmasson, H. & Walsh, J.E. 2007. Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctica). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Perry, OF. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: 653-685.
  • 18. Bates, B.C., Kundzewicz, Z.W., Wu, S., & Palutikof, J.P. (eds.) 2008. Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 210 pp.
  • 19. Nuttall, M., Berkes, F., Forbes, B., Kofinas, G., Vlassova, T. & Wenzel, G. 2005. Chapter 12: Hunting, Herding, Fishing, & Gathering: Indigenous Peoples and renewable resource use in the Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: 650- 690.
  • 20. Reist, J.D., Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D., Dempson, J.B, Power, M., KoÅNck, G., Carmichael, T.J., Sawatzky, C.D., Lehtonen, H. & Tallman, R.F. 2006. Effects of Climate Change and UV Radiation on Fisheries for Arctic Freshwater and Anadromous Species. Ambio. 35(7):402-410.
  • 21. Furgal, C., Prowse, T.D., Ogden, A. & Reist, J.D. (in press). Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: forestry, fisheries and tourism. Ambio.
  • 22. Prowse, T.D., Wrona, F.J., Reist, J.D., Gibson, J.J., Hobbie, J.E., LeÅLvesque, L.M.J. & Warwick, V.F. 2006. Climate change effects on hydroecology of Arctic freshwater ecosystems. Ambio. 35(7):347-358.
  • 23. Vincent, W.F., Hobbie, J.E. & Laybourn-Parry, J. 2008b. Introduction to the limnology of high-latitude lake and river ecosystems. In: W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry (eds.) Polar Lakes and Rivers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK: 1-23.
  • 24. Vincent, W.F., Rautio, M. & Pienitz, R. 2007. Climate control of underwater UV exposure in polar and alpine aquatic ecosystems. In: J.B. Orbaek, R. Kallenborn and I. Tombre et al. (eds.) Arctic Alpine Ecosystems and People in a Changing Environment. Springer, Berlin. pp. 227-249.
  • 25. Beltaos, S., Prowse, T., Bonsal, B., MacKay, R., Romolo, L., Pietroniro, A. & Toth, B. 2006. Climatic effects on ice-jam flooding of the Peace–Athabasca Delta. Hydrol. Process. 20:4013-4050.
  • 26. Beltaos, S. & Prowse, T.D. 2009. River ice hydrology in a shrinking cryosphere. Hydrol. Process. 23(1):122-144.
  • 27. Lesack, L.F.W. & Marsh, P. 2007. Lengthening plus shortening of river-to-lake connection times in the Mackenzie River Delta respectively via two global change mechanism along the arctic coast. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34:L23404, doi:10.1029/2007GL031656.
  • 28. Prowse, T.D., Peters, D., Beltaos, S., Pietroniro, A., Romolo, L., Toyra, J. & Leconte R. 2002. Restoring ice-jam floodwater to a drying delta ecosystem. Water International. 27(1):58-69.
  • 29. Prowse, T.D., Furgal, C., Chouinard, R., Melling, H., Milburn, D. & Smith, S.L. (in press). Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: energy, resource and transportation sectors. Ambio.
 
INDICATOR #16 Changing distribution of marine fish
  • 1. Gj.saeter, H., Bogstad, B. & Tjelmeland, S. 2009. Ecosystem effects of three capelin stock collapses in the Barents Sea. Mar. Biol.Res. 5: 40-53.
  • 2. Grebmeier, J.M., Overland, J.E., Moore, S.E., Farley, E.V., Carmack, E.C., Cooper, L.W., Frey, K.E., Helle, J.H., McLaughlin, F.A. & McNutt, S.L. 2006. A major ecosystem shift in the Northern Bering Sea. Science. 311(10): 1461-1464.
  • 3. Overland, J. 2009. Fisheries in the Bering Sea. In: J. Richter-Menge and J.E. Overland (eds.) 2009: Arctic Report Card 2009. http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard/essay_ overland.html [Accessed 8 January 2010].
  • 4. Toresen, R. & .stvedt, J. 2000. Variation in abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, Clupeidae) throughout the 20th century and the influence of climatic fluctuations. Fish Fish. 1:231-256.
  • 5. Holst, J.C., R.ttingen, I. and Melle, W. 2004. The Herring. In: H.R. Skjoldal (ed.) The Norwegian Sea Ecosystem. Tapir Academic Press. Trondheim 2004.
  • 6. Ottersen, G., Michalsen, K. & Nakken, O. 1998. Ambient temperature and distribution of north-east Arctic cod. ICES J. Mar.Sci. 55 67-85.
  • 7. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). 2008. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2008. ICES Advice, 2008. Book 1. 345 pp.
  • 8. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2004. Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 140 pp.
  • 9. Rysgaard, S., Nielsen, T.G., & Hansen, B.W. 1999. Seasonal variation in nutrients, pelagic primary production and grazing in a high-Arctic coastal marine ecosystem, Young Sound, Northeast Greenland. Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser. 179:13-25.
  • 10. Caldeira, K. & Wickett, M. E. 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature. 425(6956):365–365.
  • 11. Ishimatsu, A., Kikkawa, T., Hayashi, M., Lee, K.S. & Kita, J. 2004. Effects of CO2 on marine fish: larvae and adults. J. Oceangr. 60:731-741.
  • 12. Cheung, W.W.L., Lam, V.W.Y. & Pauly, D. (eds.) 2008. Modeling present and climate-shifted distribution of marine fishes and invertebrates. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(3).72 pp.
 
INDICATOR #17 Impacts of human activities on benthic habitat
  • 1. Stone, R.P. 2006. Coral habitats in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska: depth distribution, fine-scale species associations, and fisheries interactions. Coral Reefs 25: 229-238.
  • 2. Mortensen, P.B. & FossaÅã, J.H. 2006. Species diversity and spatial distribution of invertebrates on Lophelia reefs in Norway. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium,1849-1868. Okinawa, Japan.
  • 3. Guijarro Garcia, E., Ragnarsson, S.AÅL., SteingriÅLmsson, S.A., Naevestad, D., Haraldsson, H.?., FossaÅã, J.H., Tendal, O.S. & EiriÅLksson, H. 2006. Bottom trawling and dredging in the Arctic. Impacts of fishing on target and non-target species, vulnerable habitats and cultural heritage. TemaNord. 2006:529, 375 pp.
  • 4. FossaÅã, J.H., Mortensen., P.B. & Furevik, D.M. 2002. The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters; distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia. 417:1-12.
  • 5. Stone, R.P. & Shotwell, S.K. 2007. State of the Deep Coral Ecosystems in the Alaska Region: Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands. In: S.E. Lumsden, T.F. Hourigan, A.W. Bruckner, & G. Dorr (eds.) The State of Deep Coral Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP-3, pp. 65-108. Silver Spring MD,.
  • 6. Freiwald, A., FossaÅã, J.H., Grehan, A., Koslow T. & Roberts, J.M. 2004. Cold-water coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. 84 pp.
  • 7. KaÅãlaÅãs, J.A., Viken, AÅã. & Bakken, T. (eds.) 2006. Norsk R.dliste 2006 – 2006 Norwegian Red List. Artsdatabanken, Norway.
  • 8. Klitgaard, A.B. & Tendal, O.S. 2004. Distribution and species composition of mass occurrences of large-sized sponges in the northeast Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr. 61: 57–98.
  • 9. Shester, G. & Ayers, J. 2005. A cost effective approach to protecting deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems with an application to the Alaska’s Aleutian Islands region. In: A. Freiwald and J.M. Roberts (eds.) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. pp. 1151-1169. Springer, Berlin.
  • 10. Kutti, T., H.isaeter, T., Rapp, H.T., Humborstad, O.B., L.kkeborg, S. & N.ttestad, L. 2005. Immediate effects of experimental otter trawling on a sub-Arctic benthic assemblage inside Bear Island fishery protection zone in the Barents Sea. In: P.W. Barnes and Thomas, J.P. (eds.) Benthic habitats and the effects of fishing. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 41, pp. 519-528, Bethesda, Maryland.
  • 11. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2004. Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 140pp.
 
INDICATOR #18 Reindeer herding
  • 1. Jernsletten, J.-L. & Klokov, K. 2002. Sustainable reindeer husbandry. Arctic Council/Centre for Saami Studies, Troms..
  • 2. Stammler, F. 2005. Reindeer nomads meet the market: culture, property and globalization at the ‘End of the land’. Lit Verlag, Münster.
  • 3. Forbes, B.C., BoÅNlter, M., Müller-Wille, L., Hukkinen, J., Müller, F., Gunslay, N. & Konstantinov, Y. (eds.) 2006. Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • 4. Podkorytov, F.M. 1995. Reindeer herding on Yamal (in Russian). Leningradskoi Atomoi Electrostantsii, Sosnovyi Bor.
  • 5. Fox, J. 1998. Finnmarksvidda: reindeer carrying capacity and exploitation in a changing pastoral ecosystem - a range ecology perspective on the reindeer ecosystem in Finnmark. In: S. Jentoft (ed.) Commons in cold climate: coastal fisheries and reindeer pastoralism in north Norway. Parthenon Publishers, Paris. pp. 17-39.
  • 6. Baskin, L.M. 2005. Number of wild and domestic reindeer in Russia in the late 20th century. Rangifer. 25(1):51-57.
  • 7. Kumpula, J. 2001. Productivity of the semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.) stock and carrying capacity of pastures in Finland during 1960-1990ÅLs. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis A375. University of Oulu, Oulu.
  • 8. Beach, H. 1997 Negotiating nature in Swedish Lapland: ecology and economics of Saami reindeer management. In: A. Smith and J. McCarter (eds.) Contested Arctic: Indigenous Peoples, Nation States, and Circumpolar Environments. Seattle: U of Washington Press (1997).
  • 9. Yuzhakov, A.A. 2006. The Aboriginal Nenets Breed of Reindeer (in Russian). Red North Publishers, Salekhard.
  • 10. UralPolit. 2008. UralPolit News Archive (in Russian). http://www.uralpolit.ru/%20regions/jamal/28%20 %E2%80%93%2006-2007/page [Accessed 18 November 2009].
  • 11. Forbes, B.C. & Stammler, F. 2009. Arctic climate change discourse: the contrasting politics of research agendas in the West and Russia. Polar Res. 28: 28–42.
  • 12. Moen, J., & Danell, OÅN. 2003. Reindeer in the Swedish mountains: an assessment of grazing impacts. Ambio. 32:397-402.
  • 13. Müller-Wille, L., Hukkinen, J., Müller, F., BoÅNlter, M. & Forbes, B.C. 2006. Synthesis: environmental and sociopolitical conditions for modern reindeer management in Europe’s North. In: Forbes, B.C., M. BoÅNlter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov (eds.) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in socialecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin.
  • 14. Helle, T. & Kojola, I. 2006. Population trends of semidomesticated reindeer in Fennoscandia – evaluation of explanations. In: Forbes, B.C., M. BoÅNlter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov (eds.) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin.
  • 15. Mysterud, A. 2006. The concept of overgrazing and its role in management of large herbivores. Wildl. Biol. 12:129-141.
  • 16. Lundqvist, H. 2007. Range characteristics and productivity determinants for reindeer husbandry in Sweden. PhD thesis. Agricultural University of Sweden, Uppsala.
  • 17. Eskelinen A. & Oksanen J. 2006. Changes in the abundance, composition and species richness of mountain vegetation in relation to summer grazing by reindeer. J. Veg. Sci. 17: 245-254.
  • 18. van der Wal, R. 2006. Do herbivores cause habitat degradation or vegetation state transition? Evidence from the tundra. Oikos 114:177-186.
  • 19. Kitti, H., Forbes, B.C. & Oksanen, J. 2009 Long- and short-term effects of reindeer grazing on tundra wetland vegetation. Polar Biol. 32:253-261.
  • 20. Olofsson, J. & Oksanen, L. 2005. Effects of reindeer density on vascular plant diversity on North Scandinavian mountains. Rangifer. 25(1):5-17.
  • 21. Olofsson, J., Stark, S. & Oksanen, L. 2004. Reindeer influence on ecosystem processes in the tundra. Oikos. 105:386-396.
  • 22. Uhlig, C., Sveistrup, T.E., & Schjelderup, I. 2004. Impacts of reindeer grazing on soil properties on Finnmarksvidda, northern Norway. Rangifer. Special Issue 15:83-91.
  • 23. Broll, G. 2000. Influence of overgrazing by reindeer on soil organic matter and soil microclimate of well-drained soils in the Finnish Subarctic. In: R. Lal, J.M. Kimble and B.A. Stewart, B.A. (eds.) Global climate change and cold region ecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 163-172.
  • 24. Macias Fauria, M., Helle, T., Niva, A., Posio, H. & Timonen, M. 2008. Removal of the lichen mat by reindeer enhances tree growth in a northern Scots pine forest. Can. J. Forest Res. 38:2981–2993.
  • 25. Forbes, B.C., Arctic Centre, University of Lapland. pers. comm. 2009.
  • 26. Forbes, B.C., Fresco, N., Shvidenko, A., Danell. K. & Chapin, F.S. III. 2004. Geographic variations in anthropogenic drivers that influence the vulnerability and resilience of high latitude social-ecological systems. Ambio. 33:377-382.
  • 27. Turi, J.M. 2000. Native reindeer herders’ priorities for research. Polar Res. 19(1):131-133.
  • 28. DahlstroÅNm, AÅã.N. 2003. Negotiating wilderness in a cultural landscape: predators and Saami reindeer herding in the Laponian world heritage area. Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology 32. University of Uppsala, Uppsala.
  • 29. Norberg, H., Kojola, I., Aikio, P. & Nylund, M. 2006. Predation by golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos on semi-domesticated reindeer Rangifer tarandus calves in northeastern Finnish Lapland. Wildl. Biol. 12(4):393–402.
  • 30. Forbes, B.C. 2008 Equity, vulnerability and resilience in social-ecological systems: a contemporary example from the Russian Arctic. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy. 15:203-236.
  • 31. Stammler, F. et al. (2009) “Ilebts” declaration on coexistence of oil and gas activities and indigenous communities on Nenets and other territories in the Russian North. Rovaniemi: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland. http://www.arcticcentre.org/ declaration [Accessed 18 November 2009].
  • 32. Forbes, B.C., Stammler, F., Kumpula, T., Meschtyb, N., Pajunen, A. & KaarlejaÅNrvi, E. 2009. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 106: 22041-22048.
  • 33. Stammler, F. & Peskov, V. 2008. Building a ‘Culture of dialogue’ among stakeholders in North-West Russian oil extraction. Europe-Asia Studies. 60(5): 831-849.
  • 34. Forbes, B.C., Ebersole, J.J., & Strandberg, B. 2001. Anthropogenic disturbance and patch dynamics in circumpolar arctic ecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 15:954 –969.
  • 35. Khitun, O. & Rebristaya, O. 2002. In: A.E. Watson, L. Alessa and J. Sproull (eds.) Wilderness in the Circumpolar North. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO., pp 85–95.
  • 36. Klokov, K.B. 1997. Northern reindeer of the Taymyr Okrug as the focus of economic activity: contemporary problems of reindeer husbandry and the wild reindeer hunt. Polar Geog. 21:233-271.
 
INDICATOR #19 Seabird harvest
  • 1. Denlinger, L. & Wohl, K. (eds.) 2001. Seabird harvest regimes in the Circumpolar Nations. CAFF Technical Report No. 9. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF, Akureyri, Iceland.
  • 2. Lack, D. 1967. The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • 3. Furness, R.W. & Monaghan, P. 1987. Regulation of seabird populations. Seabird Ecology. pp. 35-52. Blackie, Glasgow.
  • 4. Robertson, G.J. & Gilchrist, H.G. 1998. Evidence of population declines among Common Eiders breeding in the Belcher Islands, Northwest Territories. Arctic. 51:378-385.
  • 5. Systad, G.H., Bustnes, J.O., & Erikstad, K.E. 2000. Behavioural responses to decreasing day length in wintering sea ducks. Auk.117: 33-40.
  • 6. Merkel, F.R. & Barry, T. (eds.) 2008. Seabird harvest in the Arctic. CAFF Technical Report No. 16. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF (CBird), Akureyri, Iceland.
  • 7. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 1996. International Murre Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF (CBird), Akureyri, Iceland. http://www.caff. is [Accessed 15 January 2010].
  • 8. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 1997. Circumpolar Eider Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird of CAFF (CBird), Akureyri, Iceland. http://www.caff.is [Accessed 15 January 2010].
  • 9. Gilchrist, G., Str.m, H., Gavrilo, V.M., & Mosbech, A. 2008. International Ivory Gull Conservation Strategy and action plan. CAFF Technical Report No. 18. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF, Akureyri, Iceland.
  • 10. For Norway: H.Str.m - The Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway; for the Faroe Islands: B. Olsen - Faroese Fisheries Laboratory, Faroe Islands; for Russia: M. Gavrilo - Arctic & Antarctic Research Institute, Russia; E. Syroechkovskiy - Institute of problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russia; and C. ZoÅNckler - UNEP/World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK; for Iceland: A. Petersen - The Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Iceland; for Canada: G. Gilchrist - Wildlife Research Division, Environment Canada. Status and trends of seabird harvest updates. pers. comm. 2009.
  • 11. Syroechkovskiy, Jr. E., & Klokov, K. 2007. Development of methodology of waterfowl subsistence harvest survey in North-Eastern Russia and evaluation of hunting pressure on waterfowl populations with special reference to eiders. Unpublished report of the Goose, Swan and Duck Study Group. Moscow. 128 pp.
  • 12. Ekker, M.(ed.) 2008. Vest-Nordiske sj.fugler i et presset havmilj. (West-Nordic seabirds in a marine environment under pressure). Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, TemaNord. 2008:573.
  • 13. Irons, D.B., Anker-Nilssen, T., Gaston, A.J., Byrd, G.V., Falk, K., Gilchrist, G., Hario, M., Hjernquist, M., Krasnov, Y.V., Mosbech, A., Olsen, B., Petersen, A., Reid, J.B., Robertson, G.J., Strom, H. & Wohl, K.D. 2008. Fluctuations in circumpolar seabird populations linked to climate oscillations. Global Change Biol. 14:1455-1463.
  • 14. Huntington, H.P. 2007. Arctic Oil and Gas 2007 Overview Report. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. 57 pp.
 
INDICATOR #20 Changes in harvest
  • 1. Wolfe, R.J.,1998. “Subsistence Economies in Rural Alaska.” Cultural Survival Quarterly. 22(3):49-50.
  • 2. Wolfe, R.J., 2000. Subsistence in Alaska: A year 2000 Update. Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
  • 3. Burch, E.S. 1985. Subsistence Production in Kivalina: A Twenty Year Perspective. Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Juneau, Alaska, Alaska Technical Paper No. 128.
  • 4. McNeil, S.L., 2002. Yukon River Salmon Season Review for 2002 and Technical Committee Report. Regional Information Report No. 3A02-44, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries and the United States and Canada Yukon River Joint Technical Committee, Anchorage, Alaska and Whitehorse, Yukon Territory.
  • 5. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of Northwest Territories. 2009. NWT State of the Environment Report: Highlights 2009. http://www. enr.gov.nt.ca/_live/documents/documentManagerUpload/ NWT2009State_Enviro_ReportFINAL.pdf [Accessed 27 January 2010].
  • 6. NWT Bureau of Statistics. 2002. 2002 NWT Regional Employment & Harvesting Survey - Summary of Results. http://www.stats.gov.nt.ca/Statinfo/Labour/2002LFS/ lfs2002.html [Accessed 27 January 2010].
  • 7. Nickels, S., Furgal, C., Buell, M., Moquin, H., 2005. Unikkaaqatigiit – Putting the Human Face on Climate Change: Perspectives from Inuit in Canada. Ottawa: Joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at UniversiteÅL Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization.
  • 8. Collings, P. 2006. Food Sharing Networks and Subsistence in Uklukhaktok, NT, Canada. Proceedings of the15th Inuit Studies Conference. Orality (Paris).
  • 9. Inuit Tapirit Kanatami (ITK). 2008. Inuit in Canada: A Statistical Profile. http://www.itk.ca/sites/default/files/ InuitStatisticalProfile2008_0.pdf [Accessed 22 March 2010].
  • 10. Syroechkovski, Jr. E.E. 2006. Long-term declines in Arctic goose populations in eastern Asia. In: G.C.Boere, C.A.Galbraith and D.A.Stroud (eds.) Waterbirds around the World. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK: 629-642.
  • 11. Kochnev, A.A. Pacific Research Fisheries Center (TINRO), Anadyr, Russian Federation, pers. comm. 2009.
 
INDICATOR #21 Changes in protected areas
  • 1. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 1994. The State of Protected Areas in the Circumpolar Arctic. CAFF Habitat Conservation Report No.1. Akureyri, Iceland.
  • 2. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). 2009. Data officially submitted from each of the representatives of the Arctic council countries to CAFF.
  • 3. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). 2009. Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis. http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/ index.html [Accessed 08 March 2010].
  • 4. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1042 pp.
  • 5. Anisimov, O.A., Vaughan, D.G., Callaghan, T.V., Furgal, C., Marchant, H., Prowse, T.D., Vilhalmsson, H. & Walsh, J.E. 2007. Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic) Climate Changes 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson (eds.) Cambridge University Publications, Cambridge, pp 655-685.
  • 6. Walker, D.A., Bhatt, U.S., Raynolds, M.K., Comiso, J.E., Epstein, H.E., Jia, G.J., Pinzon, J. & Tucker, C.J. Vegetation [in Arctic Report Card: Update for 2009]. http://www.arctic. noaa.gov/reportcard/vegetation.html [Accessed 19 March 2010].
  • 7. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 2008. COP 9, Bonn, 19-30 May 2008, Decision 9/16 Biodiversity and Climate Change.
  • 8. Parish, F., Sirin, A., Charman, D., Joosten, H., Minayeva, T., Silvius, M. & Stringer, L. (eds.) 2008. Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change: Main Report. Global Environment Centre, Kuala Lumpur and Wetlands International, Wageningen.
 
INDICATOR #22 Linguistic diversity
  • 1. UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the Worlds Languages in Danger 2009. http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index. php?pg=00136 [Accessed November 6th 2009].
  • 2. Stotts, J., Chair of the Inuit Circumpolar Council, pers. comm. 2010.
  • 3. Dallmann, W., Norwegian Polar Institute, pers. comm. 2009.
 
Abbreviations
  • ABA Arctic Biodiversity Assessment
  • ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
  • ASTI Arctic Species Trend Index
  • CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Programme
  • CARMA CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network
  • CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
  • CBird Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF
  • CBMP Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program of CAFF
  • EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
  • GNWT Government of the Northwest Territories
  • IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature
  • LPI Living Planet Index
  • MPA Marine Protected Area
  • NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
  • NWT Northwest Territories
  • SST sea surface temperature
  • TEK traditional ecological knowledge
  • UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
  • UNESCO United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization
  • VME Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem