INDICATOR #05 Seabirds – common eider
  • 1. Bustnes, J.O. & Tertitski, G.M. 2000. Common eider Somateria mollissima. Pages 46-50 In: T. Anker-Nilssen, V. Bakken, H. Str.m, A.N. Golovkin, V.V. Bianki and I.P. Tatarinkova (eds.) The status of marine birds breeding in the Barents Sea region. Norwegian Polar Institute, Troms.
  • 2. Goudie, R.I., Robertson, G.J. & Reed, A. 2000. Common Eider Somateria mollissima. In: A. Poole (ed.) Birds of North America Online. No 456. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/546 [Accessed 14 January 2010]
  • 3. Merkel, F.R. & Barry, T. 2008. Seabird harvest in the Arctic. CAFF Technical Report No. 16. 2008. Akureyri, Iceland, CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF. (CBird)
  • 4. BeÅLdard, J., Nadeau, A., Giroux, J.-F. & Savard, J.-P. 2008. Eiderdown: Characteristics and harvesting procedures. SocieÅLteÅL Duvetnor LteÅLe and Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, QueÅLbec Region, QueÅLbec.
  • 5. Gilchrist, H.G., Mallory, M. & Merkel, F.R. 2005. Can traditional ecological knowledge contribute to wildlife management? Case studies of migratory birds. Ecology and Society 10: 20. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/ iss1/art20/ [Accessed 14 January 2010].
  • 6. Mosbech, A., Gilchrist, H.G., Merkel, F.R., Sonne, C., Flagstad, A. & Nyegaard, H. 2006. Year-round movements of Northern Common Eiders Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in Arctic Canada and West Greenland followed by satellite telemetry. Ardea. 94:651-665.
  • 7. Petersen, M.R. 2009. Multiple spring migration strategies in a population of Pacific Common Eiders. Condor. 111:59-70.
  • 8. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) CBird group members, pers. comm. 2009. See http://web.arcticportal. org/en/caff/cbird [Accessed 15 March 2010].
  • 9. The Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF (CBird). 1997. Circumpolar Eider Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. CAFF International Secretariat. Akureyri, Iceland.
  • 10. Suydam, R.S., Dickson, D.L., Fadely, J.B. & Quakenbush, L.T. 2000. Population declines of King and Common Eiders of the Beaufort Sea. Condor. 102:219-222.
  • 11. Merkel, F.R. 2004. Evidence of population decline in Common Eiders breeding in western Greenland. Arctic. 57:27-36.
  • 12. Robertson, G.J. & Gilchrist, H.G. 1998. Evidence of population declines among Common Eiders breeding in the Belcher Islands, Northwest Territories. Arctic. 51:378-385.
  • 13. Chaulk, K.G., Robertson, G.J., Collins, B.T., Montevecchi, W.A. & Turner, B.C. 2005. Evidence of recent population increases in Common Eiders breeding in Labrador. J. Wildl. Manage. 69:805-809.
  • 14. Gilliland, S., Gilchrist, H.G., Rockwell, R. Robertson, G.J., Savard, J.-P., Merkel, F.R. & Mosbech, A. 2009. Evaluating the sustainability of harvest among Northern Common Eiders in Greenland and Canada. Wildl. Biol. 15:24-36.
  • 15. Strom, H., Gavrilo, M.V., Krasnov, J.V. & Systad, G.H. 2009. Seabirds // Joint Norwegian-Russian environmental status 2008. Report on the Barents Sea Ecosystem. Part II – Complete report. IMR/PINRO Joint Report Series. pp. 67-73.
  • 16. Desholm, M., Christensen, T.K., Scheiffarth, G., Hario, M., Andersson, AÅã., Ens, B.J., Camphuysen, C.J., Nilsson, L., Waltho, C.M., Lorentsen, S.H., Kuresoo, A., Kats, R.K.H., Fleet, D.M. & Fox, A.D. 2002. Status of the Baltic/ Wadden Sea population of the Common Eider Somateria m. mollissima. Wildfowl. 53:167-203.
  • 17. Hario, M. & Rintala, J. 2006. Fledgling production and population trends in Finnish Common Eiders Somateria mollissima mollissima – evidence for density dependence. Can. J. Zool. 84:1038-1046.
  • 18. Christensen, T.K. 2008. Factors affecting population size of Baltic Common Eiders Somateria mollissima. Dissertation, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University.
  • 19. Lehikoinen, A., Christensen, T.K., OÅNst, M., Kilpi, M., Saurola, P. & Vattulainen, A. 2008. Large-scale change in the sex ratio of a declining eider Somateria mollissima population. Wildl. Biol. 14:288-301.
  • 20. Butler, E.I. 2009. Avian cholera among Arctic breeding common eiders: temporal dynamics and the role of handling stress in reproduction and survival. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Carleton University, Canada.
  • 21. Bakken, V. & Falk, K. 1998. Incidental take of seabirds in commercial fisheries in the Arctic countries. CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, CAFF Technical Report no. 1. 50 pp.
  • 22. Žydelis, R., Bellebaum, J., OÅNsterblom, H., Vetemaa, M., Schirmeister, B., Stipniece, A., Dagys, M., van Eerden, M. & Garthe, S. 2009. Bycatch in gillnet fisheries - An overlooked threat to waterbird populations. Biol. Conserv. 142:1269- 1281.
  • 23. Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Fangel, K., Dervo, B.K. & Anker- Nilssen, T. 2008. Bifangst av sj.fugl i norske fiskerier - eksisterende kunnskab og forslag til kartleggingsprosjekt. Norsk Institutt for Naturforskning, Trondheim, NINA Rapport 382. 62 pp.
  • 24. Merkel, F.R. 2004. Impact of hunting and gillnet fishery on wintering eiders in Nuuk, Southwest Greenland. Waterbirds. 27:469-479.
  • 25. JoÅLnsson, J.E., Gardarson, A., Gill, J.A., Petersen A. & Gunnarsson, T.G. 2009. Seasonal weather effects on the common eider, a subarctic capital breeder, in Iceland over 55 years. Clim. Res.38: 248.
  • 26. Hario, M., Mazarolle, M.J. & Saurola, P. 2009. Survival of female common eiders Somateria m. mollissima in a declining population of the northern Baltic Sea. Oecol. 159:747-756.