INDICATOR #10 Arctic sea-ice ecosystem
  • 1. Gradinger, R., Hopcroft, R.R. & Bluhm, B. 2004. Arctic Census of Marine Life (Arc-CoML) Program Proposal. University of Fairbanks. Fairbanks, Alaska. 35 pp.
  • 2. L.nne, O.J. & Gulliksen, B. 1991. On the distribution of sympagic macro-fauna in the seasonally ice covered Barents Sea. Polar Biol. 11:457-469.
  • 3. Bradstreet, M.S.M. & Cross, W.E. 1982. Trophic relationships at high Arctic ice edges. Arctic. 35:1-12.
  • 4. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). http://nsidc. org [Accessed 12 January 2010].
  • 5. Wang, M. & Overland, J. 2009. A sea ice free summer Arctic within 30 years? Geophys. Res. Lett. 36:L07502.
  • 6. Poulin, M., Cardinal, A. & Legendre, L. 1983. ReÅLponse d’une communauteÅL de diatomeÅLes de glace a` un gradient de saliniteÅL (baie d’Hudson). Mar. Biol. 76:191-202.
  • 7. Rozanska, M., Gosselin, M., Poulin, M., Wiktor, J.M., and Michel, C. 2009. Influence of environmental factors on the development of bottom ice protist communities during the winter-spring transition. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 386:43-59.
  • 8. Rozanska, M., Poulin, M. & Gosselin, M. 2008. Protist entrapment in newly formed sea ice in the coastal Arctic Ocean. J. Mar. Syst. 74:887-901.
  • 9. Gradinger, R.R. & Bluhm, B.A. 2004. In situ observations on the distribution and behavior of amphipods and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) under the sea ice of the High Arctic Canada Basin. Polar Biol. 27:595–603.
  • 10. Crawford, R.E. & Jorgenson, J.K. 1993. Schooling behaviour of arctic cod, Boreogadus saida, in relation to drifting pack ice. Environ. Biol. Fish. 36:345–357.
  • 11. Bouchard, C. & Fortier, L. 2008. Effects of polynyas on the hatching season, early growth and survival of polar cod Boreogadus saida in the Laptev Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 355:247-256.
  • 12. North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) 2009. Arctic Fishery Management Plan. http://www.fakr. noaa.gov/npfmc/fmp/arctic/ArcticFMP.pdf) [Accessed 12 January 2010].
  • 13. Gaston, A.J., Woo, K. & Hipfner, J.M. 2003. Trends in forage fish populations in northern Hudson Bay since 1981, as determined from the diet of nesting thick-billed murres Uria lomvia. Arctic. 56:227-233.
  • 14. Haney, J.C. & MacDonald, S.D. 1995. Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea). In: A. Poole and F. Gill (eds.)The Birds of North America, No. 175. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
  • 15. Divoky, G.J. 1976. The pelagic feeding habits of Ivory and Ross’ Gulls. Condor. 78:85-90.
  • 16. Gjertz, J., Mehlum, F. and Gabrielsen, G.W. 1985. Food sample analysis of seabirds collected during ‘Lance’-cruise in ice-filled waters in Eastern Svalbard 1984 // Norsk Polarinstitutt Rapportserie. Oslo: Norsk Polarinstitutt. N 23. P. 1–17.
  • 17. Gilchrist, G., Str.m, H., Gavrilo, M.V. & Mosbech, A. 2008. International Ivory Gull conservation strategy and action plan. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group of CAFF (CBird), CAFF Technical Report No. 18.
  • 18. Gilg, O., Boertmann, D., Merkel, F., Aebischer, A., & Sabard, B. 2009. Status of the endangered ivory gull, Pagophila eburnea, in Greenland. Polar Biol. 32:1275–1286.
  • 19. Petersen, M.R., Larned, W.W. & Douglas, D.C. 1999. At-sea distribution of Spectacled Eiders: a 120-year-old mystery resolved. Auk. 116:1009-1020.
  • 20. Mosbech, A., Dan., R.S., Merkel, F., Sonne, C., Gilchrist, G. & Flagstad, A. 2006. Use of satellite telemetry to locate key habitats for King Eiders Somateria spectabilis in West Greenland. Waterbirds around the world. In: G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith and D.A. Stroud (eds.) The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 769-776.
  • 21. Divoky, G.J. 1981. Birds and the ice-edge ecosystem in the Bering Sea, p. 799-956. In: G. L. Hunt, Jr. (ed.) The eastern Bering Sea shelf: oceanography and resources, section VI, marine birds. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington.
  • 22. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Spectacled eider recovery plan. Anchorage, AK.
  • 23. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2001. Final determination of critical habitat for the spectacled eider. Anchorage, AK.
  • 24. Suydam, R.S., Dickson, D.L. Fadely, J.B. & Quakenbush, L.T. 2000. Population declines of King and Common Eiders of the Beaufort Sea. Condor. 102:219-222.
  • 25. Mehl, K.R., Alisauskas, R.T., Hobson, K.A. & Merkel, F.R. 2005. Linking breeding and wintering areas of king eiders: making use of polar isotopic gradients. J. Wildl. Manage. 69(3):1297-1304.
  • 26. Mosbech, A. & Boertmann, D. 1999. Distribution, abundance and reaction to aerial surveys of post-breeding king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) in western Greenland. Arctic. 52:188-203.
  • 27. Gratto-Trevor, C.L., Johnston, V.H. & Pepper S.T. 1998. Changes in shorebird and eider abundance in the Rasmussen Lowlands, NWT. Wilson Bull. 110:316-325.
  • 28. Irons, D.B., Anker-Nilssen, T., Gaston, A.J., Byrd, G.V., Falk, K., Gilchrist, G., Hario, M., Hjernquist, M., Krasnov, Y.V., Mosbech, A., Olsen, B., Petersen, A., Reid, J., Robertson, G., Strom, H. & Wohl, K.D. 2008. Magnitude of climate shift determines direction of circumpolar seabird population trends. Global Change Biol. 14:1455-1463.
  • 29. Gaston, A.J. & Gilchrist, H.G. 2009. Murres. In: J.Richter- Menge and J.E. Overland (eds.) 2009: Arctic Report Card 2009. pp. 59-64. www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard [Accessed 12 January 2010].
  • 30. Laidre, K.L., Heide-Jorgensen, M.P., Nyeland, J., Mosbech, A. & Boertmann, D. 2008. Latitudinal gradients in sea ice and primary production determine Arctic seabird colony size in Greenland. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 275:2695–2702.
  • 31. Moore, S.E. & Huntington, H.P. 2008. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl):S157–S165.
  • 32. Simpkins, M. 2009. Marine Mammals. In: J.Richter-Menge and J.E. Overland (eds.) 2009: Arctic Report Card 2009. pp. 50-58. www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard [Accessed 12 January 2010].
  • 33. Laidre, K.L., Stirling, I., Lowry, L.F., Wiig, .., Heide- J.rgensen, M.P. & Ferguson, S.H., 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecol. Appl. 18 (Suppl.):S97–S125.
  • 34. Ragen, T.J., Huntington, H.P. & Hovelsrud, G.K. 2008. Conservation of arctic marine mammals faced with climate change. Ecol. Appl. 18(Suppl.):S166-S174.
  • 35. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2010. Stock assessment for Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens): Alaska Stock. Anchorage, AK.
  • 36. Lowry, L., Kovacs, K. & Burkanov, V. 2008. Odobenus rosmarus. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/ redlist/details/15106/0 [Accessed 03 January 2010].
  • 37. COSEWIC. 2006. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/virtual_ sara/files/cosewic/sr_atlantic_walrus_e.pdf [Accessed 03 January 2010].
  • 38. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO). Undated. Status of marine mammals in the North Atlantic: the Atlantic walrus. http://www.nammco.no/webcronize/ images/Nammco/654.pdf [Accessed 03 January 2010].
  • 39. Witting, L. & Born, E. 2005: An assessment of Greenland walrus populations. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62:266–285.
  • 40. Lydersen, C., Aars, J. & Kovacs, K.M. 2008. Estimating the number of walruses in Svalbard based on aerial surveys and behavioural data from satellite telemetry. Arctic. 61: 119–128.
  • 41. SipilaÅN, T. & Kokkonen, T. 2008: Saimaannorppakannan tila vuonna 2007. Ilmaston muutoksen vaikutus sekaÅN sen aiheuttaman haitan kompensoinnista. MetsaÅNhallitus, EtelaÅN- Suomen Luontopalvelut, julkaisematon asiakirja nro 657/41/2008.
  • 42. Karlsson, O., HaÅNrkoÅNnen, T. & BaÅNcklin, B.M. 2007. Seals on the increase (In Swedish -SaÅNlar paÅã uppgaÅãng). Havet. 2007: 84–89.
  • 43. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2004. Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 140 pp.
  • 44. Grebmeier, J.M., Overland, J.E., Moore, S.E., Farley, E.V., Carmack, E.C., Cooper, L.W., Frey, K.E., Helle, J.H., McLaughlin, F.A., & McNutt, S.L. 2006. A major ecosystem shift in the northern Bering Sea. Science. 311:1461–1464.
  • 45. Moline, M.A. 2008. High Latitude Changes in Ice Dynamics and Their Impact on Polar Marine Ecosystems. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1134(1).
  • 46. Bluhm, B.A. & Gradinger, R. 2008. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals. Ecol. Appl. 18(Suppl): S77–S96.
  • 47. Gradinger, R. 1995. Climate change and biological oceanography of the Arctic Ocean. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A. 352:277–286.
  • 48. Smetacek, V. & Nicol, S. 2005. Polar ecosystems in a changing world. Nature. 437: 362–368.
  • 49. Cheung, W.W.L., Lam, V.W.Y., & Pauly, D. 2008. Dynamic Bioclimate Envelope Model to Preduct Climate-Inducted Changes in Distribution of Marine Fishes and Invertebrates. In: W.W.L.Cheung, V.W.Y. Lam, and D. Pauly (eds.) Modelling Present and Climate-shifted Distribution of Marine Fishes and Invertebrates. Fisheries Centre Research Report 16(3):5-50.
  • 50. Tynan, C.T. & DeMaster, D.P. 1997. Observations and predictions of Arctic climate change: potential effects on marine mammals. Arctic. 50:308–322.
  • 51. Lowry, L. 2000. Marine mammal–sea ice relationships. In: H. P. Huntington, editor. Impacts of changes in sea ice and other environmental parameters in the Arctic. pp. 91–96. Report of the Marine Mammal Commission Workshop, 15–17 February 2000, Girdwood, Alaska. Marine Mammal Commission, Besthesda, Maryland, USA.